Early Views of Santa Monica

Historical Photos of Early Santa Monica
(ca. 1905)** - View of the Santa Monica shoreline from Palisades Park. The tracks of the Los Angeles & Independence R.R. run where Pacific Coast Highway is today. To the right, a motorcar ascends an early version of the California Incline.  


Historical Notes

The California Incline was originally a walkway which was cut through the bluffs to provide beach access to pedestrians in 1896.



(ca. 1905)** - Early view looking up the California Incline leading from the coast highway to the palisades. There is a walking path to the right of the road.  


Historical Notes

Today, the California Incline is a vital street in Santa Monica, linking the PCH with Ocean Avenue, and California Avenue, bisecting Palisades Park. It begins at an intersection with Ocean Avenue and California Avenue, at the top of the palisades, extending to the PCH at the base of the bluffs.



(ca. 1905)* - View shows a wooden fence along an unpaved California Incline with the Long Wharf seen in the background. The Santa Monica mountains are in the distance. Linda Vista Park (later Palisades Park) is on the right.  


Historical Notes

Originally known as “Linda Vista Park,” Palisades Park was the first officially-designated public open space in Santa Monica. The land was donated to the City by Santa Monica's founder, Senator John P. Jones, in 1892. Additional land was donated by the Santa Monica Land and Water Company. The park was designed by I.E. Le Grande in 1913. It features Craftsman-era stone gates with tiles designed by Ernest Batchelder, picnic areas, a rose garden and scenic overlooks.*^*^




(ca. 1910)^*## – Postcard view showing a woman standing on the California Incline watching a car as it makes its way up the grade. The Long Wharf can be seen in the background.  


Historical Notes

The Long Wharf was built in 1893 at the north end of Santa Monica to accommodate large ships and was dubbed Port Los Angeles. At the time it was constructed, it was the longest pier in the world at 4700 feet, and accommodated a train.*^

However, just a short four years after the Long Wharf's construction, San Pedro Bay was chosen over Santa Monica to be the main seaport of Los Angeles. Click HERE to see more in Early Views of San Pedro and Wilmington.




(1910s)#^^ – View showing an automobile driving south up the California Incline in Santa Monica.  The rustic fence is on the left, and the bluffs on the right. Note the pedestrian trail at center-top.   





(1910s)#^^ - View from Palisades Park looking down a pedestrian trail that intersects the California Incline road, with the beach, and Santa Monica Pier and Ocean Park amusement piers in the background.  Note the observation deck at right.  





(ca. 1905)#^^ - View looking down the California Incline road in Santa Monica towards the beach and railroad tracks. The Southern Pacific Railroad ran steam engines along these tracks between Los Angeles and the Long Wharf (seen in distance at left). A few telephone poles can also be seen, as well as the wagon trail that ran alongside the railroad tracks.  





(ca. 1910)#^^ - View looking south at the California Incline road coming down from the bluffs to the beach, in Santa Monica. The North Beach Bath House Pier is in the distance. Railroad tracks can be seen running along the beach road below.  





(1912)**^ – View looking up the California Incline from near the tracks along the beach.  





(ca. 1913)** - Panoramic view of Santa Monica Beach looking north from the California Street incline. The ocean and shore are visible to the left, down from the cliff along which a paved road runs, lined to either side by a post-and-rail fence made from rough-cut branches. A second, higher road stands directly next to the first, at the right. Mountains are visible stretching out into the water in the background. Plants that appear to have been put there rather than growing naturally stand along the left side of the road.  





(1915)^#* – View of two horse-drawn wagons hauling freight up the California Incline.  





(1916)#*#* – Photo of the California Incline showing a man next to an early model convertible taking on the view of the beach and ocean below.  Also seen is a horse-drawn wagon making its way up the incline. LA Times Photo Archives  





(ca. 1920)^^ - Panoramic view shows two people standing by the fence along Palisades Park looking south toward the Santa Monica Pier and the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Another person is seen walking along the fence-lined path. Two large ships are seen between the pier and peninsula.  


Historical Notes

The California Incline was widened and improved in 1929-1930, the same time the coast highway was improved and officially named the Roosevelt Highway.  The Highway 1 designation came about in 1939*^




Sunset Trail

(1910s)#^^ - View of Sunset Trail from Linda Vista Park (present day Palisades Park) to Palisades Beach Road in Santa Monica. A sign hangs from a rustic wooden archway that reads "Sunset Trail to Palisades Beach Road." The 99 Steps can be seen over the Beach Road (later part of Pacific Coast Highway) at left and the Long Wharf is visible in the distance.  


Historical Notes

Originally known as “Linda Vista Park,” Palisades Park was the first officially-designated public open space in Santa Monica. The land was donated to the City by Santa Monica's founder, Senator John P. Jones, in 1892.*^*^




(ca. 1920)** - Entrance to the Sunset Trail at Santa Monica's Palisades Park. The trail is at center and heads down the steep face of the cliffs that give the park its name. The trail is bordered on the left side by a wooden fence made from twisted tree branches. The entrance to the trail is marked by a large wooden sign supported by a wooden framework made of tree trunks. The tops of the cliffs are at right and are covered with an assortment of bushes, and the ocean is visible in the background at left. The Pacific Coast Highway is at the base of the trail in the background at left and is lined with utility poles and beach houses. Sign reads: "SUNSET TRAIL - To Palisades Beach Road"  





(1910)#^^ - Postcard view of showing houses, a dirt coast road, an automobile and railroad tracks along the beach at Santa Monica, with the Santa Monica municipal pier in the background. The Sunset Trail is seen on the left.  





(Early 1900s)** -  View of four women strolling down the shady lane of "Lover's Walk", along the bluff in Palisades Park. Scattered trees line either side of the dirt walking path that runs down center. A lone man can be seen sitting on a bench under a tree looking out at the ocean at left.  




(Early 1900s)^^ - View looking north from Palisades Park near the top of the California Incline. The Long Wharf can be seen in the distance.  


Historical Notes

At the time it was constructed, the Long Wharf was the longest pier in the world at 4700 feet, and accommodated a train. Also known as Mammoth Wharf, it stood until 1920 when it was dismantled.*^



Pier Avenue

(Early 1900s)^ - An early view down the unpaved Pier Avenue in Ocean Park. Several rail lines can be seen in the street. A bank has been built on the left and other multi-story commercial buildings on the right. The cross street is Trolley Way.  


Historical Notes

Although Santa Monica and Ocean Park (South Santa Monica) were both settled at the same time (in the early 1870’s), Ocean Park’s history is somewhat independent from that of the rest of Santa Monica. Separated from the north by a gully which today is occupied by the Santa Monica Freeway, Ocean Park was initially oriented towards the beach where a series of piers and other tourist attractions were erected in 1890 to 1910.^^*#



(1905)*^ - View showing Ocean Park Bank located on the southwest corner Pier Avenue and Trolley Way. A man is sitting on a bench on the side of the bank in front of the tracks. The bank resembles a Greek Temple with its columns.  




(Early 1900s)**^ - View showing two men standing in front of the Ocean Park Bank on Pier Avenue. The Edison Electric Co. shared the building with Ocean Park Bank.  




(1905)* - A view down Pier Avenue showing additonal buildings from what was seen three photos back. The street is filled with pedestrians. Cars and horse-drawn carriages are parked in front of the stores on both sides of the street.


Historical Notes

One of the city’s oldest neighborhoods, Ocean Park sprang to life with Abott Kinney’s 1891 Ocean Park Development Company. Kinney bought a sandy strip of land in Santa Monica’s southwestern edge and began building roads, homes, parks and piers. After 1904, Kinney moved his attention to his Venice of America development (also called Ocean Park at the time), south of the Santa Monica city boundary. The history of Venice and Ocean Park are intertwined.^^*#




(1904)** – Birdseye view of Pier Avenue in Ocean Park showing many horse-drawn vehicles, September, 1904. The unpaved street is at center is being traveled by several carriages as well as pedestrians and bicyclists. Large buildings, most of which are at least two stories high, line both sides of the street. A wooden building at right has a large balcony, while a brick building at left has three stories. Sand bags are piled up near the street at left.; Legible signs include, from left to right, "Pier Restaurant", "Wave Furnished Rooms", and "The Big Pier Store".  


Historical Notes

The southern part of Santa Monica, commonly known as “Ocean Park,” was already an important business center as well as a popular summer resort. With the completion of the bath house and the Decatur Hotel, the building of the Masonic block and many other business blocks on Pier Avenue, Marine street and the ocean front began to put on a metropolitan aspect.^^*#



(ca. 1905)^^^ – View looking down Pier Avenue in Ocean Park. Horse-drawn carriages, early model cars, and people share the street with American flags and banners seen throughout.  





(ca. 1907)^*## – Panoramic view showing Ocean Park circa 1907. The "Wave w/ Furnished Rooms" can be seen in the background. "Lunch Counter" is on the right.  



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Venice Pier

(ca. 1905)** - Panoramic view looking north at the Pier at Venice Beach showing the amusement park and beach. The Ship Cafe is seen on the left.  


Historical Notes

Among the South Bay piers, the most notable in this period was Abbot Kinney's Venice of America pier, started in 1904 and built to rival his former partner's Ocean Park Pier. Located at the end of Windward Avenue in Venice, Kinney's pier was 900 feet long, 30 feet wide and included an Auditorium, large replica Ship Cafe, Dance Hall, Dentzel carousel, a Japanese Tea House and an Ocean Inn Restaurant. Venice soon became considered its own neighborhood.*^






(1905)* - A big crowd is seen behind the large restaurant ship which was a replica of Juan Cabrillo's Spanish galleon. People can also be seen aboard the ship which was located in Venice at the Abbot Kinney Pier.  


Historical Notes

Venice of America was founded by tobacco millionaire Abbot Kinney in 1905 as a beach resort town. He and his partner Francis Ryan had bought two miles of oceanfront property south of Santa Monica in 1891. They built a resort town on the north end of the property called Ocean Park, which was soon annexed to Santa Monica. After Ryan died, Kinney and his new partners continued building south of Navy Street in the unincorporated territory. After the partnership dissolved in 1904, Kinney built on the marshy land on the south end of the property, intending to create a seaside resort like its namesake in Italy.*^




(1906)** – Closer view showing a large number of well-dressed people walking on Abbot Kinney’s Venice of America pier alongside the Ship Café. Handwritten note on verso reads: "Ship Cafe / Venice, Cal. / 12-16-06"  





(1905)* - Nigthtime view of Abbott Kinney's Pier in Venice. The pier was destroyed by fire in 1920.  


Historical Notes

When Venice of America opened on July 4, 1905, Kinney had dug several miles of canals to drain the marshes for his residential area, built a 1,200-foot long pleasure pier with an auditorium, ship restaurant, and dance hall, constructed a hot salt-water plunge, and built a block-long arcaded business street with Venetian architecture. Tourists, mostly arriving on the "Red Cars" of the Pacific Electric Railway from Los Angeles and Santa Monica, then rode Venice's miniature railroad and gondolas to tour the town.*^




(ca. 1905)*^ - A gondolier and boat passes under one of the bridges on the canal route. At the same time a pedestrian and a bicycle rider are passing over the bridge.  


Historical Notes

The beautifully lit canals with gondoliers and arched bridges drew widespread publicity and helped sell lots in Kinney’s Venice development. However, as the automobile gained in popularity, the canals were viewed by many as outdated, and the bulk of the canals were filled in 1929 to create roads.*^




(ca. 1905)*#** - View of the Venice Miniature Railway train crossing over a Venice Canal bridge on its way back to Windward Avenue at the Venice of America Amusement Park.  


Historical Notes

When Abbot Kinney was building Venice in 1905, he decided that his new resort should have an internal transportation system to shuttle visitors and residents around town. He turned to John J. Coit who operated a successful eighteen inch gauge (1/3rd scale) miniature steam railroad at Eastlake Park (now Lincoln Park) in Los Angeles. He persuaded him to oversee the construction and management of a mile and three quarter long railroad that would take passengers from the Windward Avenue business district on a loop across canal bridges and through the canalled residential district, then return via a loop up Washington Boulevard, past its Lake Avenue maintenance yard and back to the Windward station along Mildred Avenue.*#*#*




(1912)* - Postcard view of the Miniature Railway on Windward Avenue in Venice. The miniature railroad would carry passengers for trips around the Venice streets, including Windward Ave. as shown here, and around the canal area.  


Historical Notes

The cost of a trip around Venice was five cents, although residents could buy a book of tickets for $1.00 which made the run only two cents. At that time, it cost 15 cents to ride from Los Angeles to Venice on the Los Angeles Pacific Railway. *#**



(ca. 1905)** - Several people stroll by the Dance Hall on the Amusement Pier at Venice Beach circa 1905. "Dance Hall / Venice" -- handwritten note on verso.  




(1908)** - Venice Pier on a crowded day with the Dance Hall seen in the background.  




(ca. 1908)* - A view of the front of the Aquarium, with flags flying all around the top of the building.  


Historical Notes

The Venice Beach Aquarium exhibited the finest collection of marine specimens on the Pacific coast. It later became the official marine biological station for the University of Southern California.*



Click HERE to see more in Early Southern California Amusement Parks.




North Beach

(ca. 1900)** - View of a crowded North Beach in Santa Monica with the pier in the background. The boardwalk is also full of people enjoying what appears to be a nice day at the beach.  





(ca. 1900)* - Photo of men wearing suits and finely dressed women, sitting on the sand, standing and walking the boardwalk at North Beach in Santa Monica. The North Beach Bathhouse pier can be seen in the background.  





(Early 1900s)* - Group portrait of eight people, finely dressed, standing on the beach. The pier can be seen in the background.  




(ca. 1900)** - View of eleven young men and women knee-deep in the ocean posing for the photographer.  




North Beach Bath House

(1905)* - Crowds of people wearing their fine dress are seen strolling along the boardwalk and sitting on the beach, in front of the North Beach Bath House in Santa Monica.  


Historical Notes

The North Beach Bath House replaced the original Santa Monica Bath House in 1894. It was for many years the area’s favorite resort facility.  A special feature was the hot saltwater baths.  The admission fee was twenty-five cents.  The building also housed a restaurant, a bowling pavilion and the first Camera Obscura.  At the turn of the century, thousands of people were coming to visit the Santa Monica beach and its attractions.^#*



(ca. 1900)^#* - Interior view of the North Beach Bath House.  





(ca. 1900)* - View of the indoor plunge in Santa Monica-Ocean park. Several people are swimming while spectators (in street clothes) watch from the bleachers along the side.  




Santa Monica Municipal Pier

(1909)#^^ - View showing people walking onto the Santa Monica Municipal Pier on Pier Day, September 9, 1909, in Santa Monica.  In the distance United States Naval vessels are seen anchored offshore for the event.  


Historical Notes

On September 9, 1909, after sixteen months of construction, the Santa Monica Municipal Pier opened to the public. Thousands of people swarmed onto the 1,600-foot-long concrete pier to enjoy a festive day of band concerts, swimming races and the novelty of walking above the waters of the Pacific Ocean. While originally built to satisfy the City's sanitation needs, the Pier quickly became a magnet for the fishing community and fueled the imagination of many local entrepreneurs.^++



(ca. 1909)** - View Santa Monica Beach looking south from the Palisades. The beach is at right, and running next to it is a two-lane paved highway. Making its way parallel to the road is a railroad. There are tall cliffs at left, covered in a variety of plants and trees. A small group of buildings is visible at center near the water, and a long pier (Santa Monica Municipal Pier) juts out into the ocean from near these buildings. There is a shorter pier in the foreground, and two people can be seen walking along the sand at right.  




(ca. 1910)* – Closer view showing railroad tracks running parallel to an old dirt road along the Santa Monica beach front. This site is now the Roosevelt Highway. In the background can be seen Santa Monica Municipal Pier.  



Ocean Park Bath House

(ca. 1908)## – Panoramic view looking south from Ocean Park Pier in Santa Monica.  The beautiful Ocean Park Bath House, built in 1905, is seen on the left.  


Historical Notes

When it was built in 1905, the Ocean Park Bath House was one of the most elaborate structures on Santa Monica's beach. It was Moorish in style, 3 stories high with 5 domes. An ad from 1906 claimed it had the largest swimming pool in the US.*^*^




(1905)** - View of Moorish style Ocean Park Bath House, nearing completion. Round turrets rise from each of the corners as well as over the main entrance. Rows of arched or round windows line the exterior of the three-story building on the beach. Laborers are seen working near the entry.  


Historical Notes

Looking more like a movie set, the Ocean Park Bath House was one of the most talked about buildings of its day-and a great draw for the beach area. The lavish indoor plunge (heated for those who didn’t take to cooler ocean swimming) was built by A.R. Fraser. ^^*#




(ca. 1910)#^^ – Panoramic view showing people on the beach in front of the Ocean Park Bath House at Ocean Park, in Santa Monica.  





(Early 1900s)* - Crowded shoreline in front of the Ocean Park Bathhouse at Ocean Park Beach.  


Historical Notes

In 1903 Alexander Rosborough Fraser built the Ocean Park Casino, and in 1905 erected the Ocean Park Bath House. In 1906 he built the Ocean Park Auditorium, the Masonic Temple and the Decatur Hotel. In 1911 “Fraser’s Million Dollar Pier,” was completed, extending 1000 feet over the ocean and housing a multitude of amusements, including a beautiful dancing pavilion. Fraser built numerous improvements in Ocean Park, and is responsible for the construction of the concrete promenade which joins Ocean Park with Venice. #^*




(Early 1900s)* - Heavy crowd day on the beach and in front of the Ocean Park Bath House.  





(ca. 1910)* - A view of the bath house set along the beach in Ocean Park. Hundreds of visitors are sitting or standing on the beach and in the rolling waves of ocean water.  





(Early 1900s)* - Crowded beach at Ocean Park in front of the Bath House.  





(ca. 1920)** - Exterior view of the Ocean Park Bath House in Santa Monica from the pier. The bath house is at center and is a large Moorish-style building. At the center of the building is an elaborate entry way consisting of a large domed tower surrounded by four tall spires. Smaller domed towers occupy the corners of the buildings. Awnings project from the bottom story of the building, and rows of round windows occupy the second and third stories.  




(1921)*^ - A view of the beach and ocean water with the Ocean Park Bath House in the background, offering (sign over the door) moonlight bathing. To the right is a building Denver Hotel with a sign below it announcing Yosemite Auction.  




(ca. 1925)#*#* - Bathers and lifeguard on boardwalk in front of Ocean Park Bath House.  


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Early Santa Monica Street Scenes

(1910)* - View shows two automobiles driving on the 400 block of 3rd Street in Santa Monica. The Adelaide apartments can be seen on the left.  






(1912)*#* - Spectators line Nevada Avenue (later Wilshire Boulevard) to watch a racing event.  






(ca. 1912)* - Two-man race cars take a turn at a race in Santa Monica. The course covered San Vicente Boulevard, Ocean Avenue and Wilshire Boulevard (then named Nevada Avenue).  


Historical Notes

Auto racing became popular in Santa Monica. Drivers would race an 8.4-mile loop made up of city streets. The Free-For-All Race was conducted between 1910-1912. The United States Grand Prix was held in Santa Monica in 1914 and 1916, awarding the American Grand Prize and the Vanderbilt Cup trophies. By 1919, the events were attracting 100,000 people, at which point the city halted them.*^




(1910)** - A crowd watching an automobile race near Ocean Avenue in Santa Monica. The cars have just turned from Ocean Avenue onto Nevada Avenue (later Wilshire Boulevard). This was called the "Death Curve".  




(1914)+++ - Harry Grant, two-time winner of the Vanderbilt Cup Races, driving the #1 Isotta passes the grandstands on the east side of Ocean Avenue.  


Historical Notes

Both the 1914 and 1916 Vanderbilt Cup Races were held on the beautiful Santa Monica road course bordering on the Pacific Ocean.

The Santa Monica 8.4-mile course consisted of three major roads; Ocean Avenue (location of the start/finish), Wilshire Boulevard and San Vicente Boulevard. The race was 35 laps for a total of 295 miles. +++



(1914)+++ – View showing the "Death Curve", located at the corner of Ocean Avenue and Wilshire Boulevard.  


Historical Notes

In the 1914 Vanderbilt Cup Races, Eddie Pullen's #4 Mercer lost its front right tire at the "Death Curve" and moments later crashed into the barricade. Two days later, Pullen won the 400-mile American Grand Prix on the same course with the same car. +++




(ca. 1916)^^+– View showing the dramatic Santa Monica finish line where Eddie O'Donnell takes the checkered flag in his Number 19 Duesenberg.  




Jefferson School (Santa Monica's 1st School Building)

(1910)* - Exterior view of Jefferson School located at 1333 Sixth Street in Santa Monica.  


Historical Notes

Jefferson school, originally called 6th St. School, was Santa Monica's first school building and was located on two lots on the east side of 6th St. between Santa Monica Blvd. and Arizona. This first school was a frame building and was erected in 1876.*#^



Santa Monica City Hall

(1903)#^ - Exterior view of Santa Monica City Hall the year it was built, located at the southwest corner of 4th and Oregon (Santa Monica Boulevard). Architect: Carol Brown, addition by Henry Hollwedel.


Historical Notes

In 1903, Santa Monica constructed its first independent city hall at a site that was then just east of downtown’s main commercial core. Choosing the Mission Revival architectural style, it featured massive brick walls covered with stucco, arcades, arched windows, elevated scalloped parapets, and a corner tower.*##^




(ca. 1917)#^# – Postcard view showing the old Santa Monica City Hall, located at Santa Monica Boulevard and Fourth Street.  


Historical Notes

Santa Monica’s library shared space in City Hall, and a notorious dungeon-like jail was located in the basement that drew indignant protests from female civic leaders who demanded better conditions for the city’s prison population. Later a new jail adjacent to City Hall was built by Henry Hollwedel.*##^




(1930s)^#* - View of the old City Hall as it appeared in the 1930s. The building shared space with the Police Dept.  


Historical Notes

The old City Hall building was demolished in the late 1930’s. S. H. Kress & Co bought the property and erected a new store to replace the store on 3rd street. This building has since been demolished for new development, but the 3rd Street building survives.*##^

Today’s City Hall at 1685 Main Street replaced this earlier structure in 1939.^#*



Santa Monica High School

(ca. 1919)*^ - Postcard view of Santa Monica High School located at 601 Pico Boulevard.  


Historical Notes

Santa Monica High School was founded in 1884. It changed location several times in its early years before settling into its present campus at 601 Pico Boulevard. The "new" campus opened in 1906 with one building, the current History building, with an enrollment of 50 students. The school sits on the hilltop of what is now 6th Street and Pico Boulevard, from which one can see the Pacific Ocean.*^




(ca. 1922)#^^ - Image of the main entrance wing of Santa Monica High School and grounds on Pico Boulevard in Santa Monica.  





(1924)** - Exterior view of Santa Monica High School, showing the main entrance and right wing. The main entrance to the multi-story brick building is seen at left center. The right wing, its walls covered in ivy, protrudes toward the foreground. The building is fronted by lawns and palm trees. A paved street and sidewalk run diagonally through the lower right of the image. The high school building was erected in 1912 and replaced during 1936 and 1937.  





(1925)#^^ - Aerial view of the Santa Monica High School campus showing the athletic field and Open Air Memorial Theater (later renamed the Memorial Greek Amphitheatre) bordered by 4th Street at bottom and Pico Boulevard at right.  


Historical Notes

In 1921, the Open Air Memorial Theatre (now called the Greek Amphitheatre) was built to honor the Santa Monicans who served in World War I. One of the best examples of the classical Greek style in Southern California, the amphitheatre was built after Santa Monica passed a $30,000 bond measure to fund its construction. Barnum Hall Theater, originally called "the Auditorium," was built in 1937 by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) to be the Civic Auditorium of Santa Monica and host school events as well. The campus also added six buildings during this period: the Language, English, Business, History, Administration and Music buildings.

In 1952, Santa Monica High School was finally expanded to what it is now, 33 acres, and two new buildings were built, the Science and Technology D.M. buildings. As the school aged, renovations took place in Barnum Hall and the Music building was completely rebuilt.

The school has been a location in a number of films. Most famously, it is the high school setting in Rebel Without a Cause where James Dean walks up the History Building stairs.*^






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More Historical Early Views



Newest Additions



Early LA Buildings and City Views



History of Water and Electricity in Los Angeles



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References and Credits

* LA Public Library Image Archive

^ LADWP Historic Archive

**USC Digital Library

^^The California History Room, California State Library

^*LMU Digital Collection: Arcadia Hotel

#* LA Times: Marquez Family

#^ Santa Monica Public Library Image Archive

+# Santa Monica Mirror: Statue of Santa Monica

+^ Santa Monica Landmarks: Looff Hippodrome

## Library of Congress: Santa Monica Bay ca. 1908; Ferris Wheel

***Cinema Treasures: El Miro Theatre; Criterion Theatre and Thrid Street; Criterion Theatre

+++Vanderbilt Cup Races

**^Noirish Los Angeles - forum.skyscraperpage.com; Deauville Club; Palisades Park Cannon

^^*Deviantart-Studio5: Santa Monica Beach

^^#University of California Digital Library: The Deauville Club

^^+Stanford University Revs Digital Library

*^#Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles: losangelespast.com

*#*KCET: A Historical Look at SoCal's Beaches

*#^Santa Monica Public Library

^#*Santa Monica History Museum

^#^Framework.latimes.com: Santa Monica Beach, 1936; Santa Monica Aerial, 1937; McClure Tunnel

^##The Malibu Times: Historic Las Flores Canyon

+##Facebook.com: Vintage Los Angeles

##+Hagley Digital Archives

*#*KCET: A Historical Look at SoCal's Beaches; Arch Rock and Castle Rocks; When L.A.'s Most Famous Streets Were Dirt Roads

**#The Central Tower Building - City Landmark Assessment and Evaluation Report

#**MTA Transportation and Research Library Archives

#^^Huntington Digital Library Archive

#++Bel-Air Bay Club History

#*^Electric Railway History: Venice Trams

#^#Calisphere Digital Archive

#+#Facebook.com: Photos of Los Angeles

^^^California State Library Image Archive

^++Santa Monica Pier HIstory

****Life.time.com: Stoked-Life Goes Surfing

^^^^Pinterest/Santa Monica Past: Santa Monica Canyon Flood; Santa Monica Airport/Clover Field; Douglas Aircraft

^*^*UCLA Digital Collection

*^*^Santa Monica Beach Stories

^**^California Legends: Santa Monica at the End of Route 66

*^^*Discoverlosangeles.com: Santa Monica

*^^^NonPhotography.com-Nika: Santa Monica Pier

***^History of the Fairmont Miramar Hotel and Bungalows

^***Southern California Beaches: Santa Monica Beach

**#*Santa Monica via Beverly Hills Line - uncanny.net

*#**Los Angeles Westerners Corral: Venice Miniature Railway

*##*AkamaIdivers.com: Pacific Ocean Pier

*##^Santa Monica Conservancy; Henshey’s Tegner Building

*#*#Los Angeles Then and Now: Douglas' Dream Took Wing in Santa Monica

*#^#Flickr.com: Walking Over Santa Monica

^#*#Venice History: Roller Coasters and Carousels

^^*#Oceanpark.wordpress.com: Ocean Park Time Line

*^*#Santa Monica Municipal Airport


*^^#LAistory: The Santa Monica Pier

#*^*Cardcow.com: Marion Davies' Mansion

#***California 2012 - Travel w/ Terry: Annenberg Beach House

#*#*Flickr.com: Michael Ryerson

#^#*Denver Public Library Image Archive

#^^^Survey LA: Brentwod-Pacific Palisades Community Plan Area

#^*^Santa Monica Landmark Properties

#*^^Pinterest.com: California

#*^#Google Street Views

#^^*Pinterest.com: Old Hollywood

#^#^Paslisades Park: smgov.net

##*^Facebook.com: Hollywood's Garden of Allah Novels, Martin Turnbull

##^^MartinTurnbull.com: Gables Beach Club

****^Facebook.com: West San Fernando Valley Then And Now



*#*#*Venice Miniature Railroad - Jeffrey Stanton

*^ Wikipedia: California State Route 1; History of Santa Monica; Alphonzo Bell; Venice; California Incline; Route 66; Third Street Pomenade; Santa Monica Pier; Casa del Mar Hotel; Pacific Palisades - Castellammare; Parkhurst Building; Venice Canal HIstoric District; Annenberg Community Beach House; Santa Monica High School; Jack Dempsey; Muscle Beach; Wilshire Boulevard


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