Early Views of Santa Monica

Historical Photos of Early Santa Monica
(ca. 1920s)^*^* - Woman with spy glass looking out toward the ocean. The beach is full of sunbathers with the Santa Monica Pier and Amusement Park in the distance. Pacific Bath House can be seen at upper right.  





(ca. 1920)** - View of the beach in Santa Monica, south of the pier.  A large grassy park is in the foreground at right. Many people are seated beneath umbrellas or on blankets on the grass. A covered walkway runs through the middle of the park at right. The beach is in the background at center and is also crowded with umbrellas and people. There is a rocky outcropping in the foreground at left. In the background at right are several large buildings and a parking lot full of early-model automobiles. Part of a pier is jutting out into the water in the distance at center, and there appears to be a roller coaster in the far distance. Legible signs include, from left to right: "Ball Room", "The Rendezvous", "Ice Cream", "Tom's", and "Pacific Bath House".  





(ca. 1920s)* - View looking north of a very crowded shoreline at Ocean Park Beach in Santa Monica.  





(1925)* - WOW! - High density real estate. The view is looking north towards Ocean Park where some buildings and part of Lick Pier are visible.  





(ca. 1920s)* - Crowded shoreline at Ocean Park Beach in Santa Monica.  





(ca. 1920s)* - A group at the sign that reads "Prohibited," at the boundary between Ink Well Beach and the whites-only section of beach in Santa Monica.  


Historical Notes

Through the 1920s, many public beaches were open to whites only. For the African American community, there was a 200-sq ft. area of beach at the foot of Pico Blvd that was marked with a sign that said “Negroes Only.” This stretch of beach became known as the Ink Well. African Americans continued to congregate at the Ink Well long after racial restrictions on beach access were lifted in 1927. It continued to be a popular African American gathering spot into the 1960s.*^*^




(1920)** - View of the beach south of Casa Del Mar Beach Club in Santa Monica, looking north to the pier. There is a grassy park at right, and the right side of the park is bordered by a covered walkway. A broad sidewalk divides the park from the sandy beach at left, and a small sidewalk electric tram is transporting passengers along the walkway. The beach is occupied by many people, several of whom are resting beneath umbrellas. The large Casa Del Mar Beach Club is at right. It is a massive rectangular building with at least five stories and a terra cotta tile roof. The pier is in the background at left.  





(1920)** - View of the Edgewater, Breakers, and Casa Del Mar Beach Clubs in Santa Monica, looking south from the water. The three massive beach clubs are seen on the shore in the middle distance. All three buildings have at least six or seven stories and two distinct wings. A tall tower emerges from the flat roof of the club at left. Several smaller buildings can be seen between and in front of the beach clubs. The beach in front of the clubs is sparsely populated with beachgoers. The ocean in the foreground is calm.  





(ca. 1920s)** - View of the Santa Monica beach and the Pacific Bath House south of Casa Del Mar Beach Club.  The sandy beach stretches across the middle of the image and is crowded with hundreds of people. The Pacific Bath house is at center. It is a light-colored, two-story building with rows of rectangular windows around its perimeter. Several large beach clubs are in the distance at left, and two small eateries are at right. There is a crowded parking lot full of early-model automobiles behind the bath house. Legible signs include, from left to right, "Pacific Bath House", "Fish Dinners", "Coca Cola Sold Here", "Frost", "Christopher's Ice Cream", "Sea Food", "Creates Golden Tan", and "Prevent".  






(1926)* - Sunbathers and umbrellas are on the sand in front of the Club Casa del Mar beach club in Santa Monica. The building displayed is the Edgewater Beach Club, 1855 Promenade. Both clubs were private. In the background is the Santa Monica Pier with its roller coaster ride.  






(1926)* - Several people are seen relaxing at the Edgewater Beach Club, 1855 Promenade, in a covered pavilion on the beach.  





(1927)* - Exterior view of the Edgewater Beach Club, left, at 1855 Promenade in Santa Monica. Groups of people with umbrellas are seen in front of the private beach clubs sitting on the sand and enjoying their day at the beach. The building partially visible to the right is the Club Casa del Mar.  




Grand Hotel (originally Breakers Beach Club, later Sea Castle Apartments)

(1930s)* – Postcard view showing people on the beach next to the Grand Hotel with the Edgewater Club and Casa Del Mar beach clubs in the distance in south Santa Monica. The hotel at center has a large sign that reads "Grand Hotel" on the north side of the building.  


Historical Notes

The Breakers Beach Club, founded in 1926, was converted into the Grand Hotel in 1934 and eventually into an apartment complex. The Edgewater Beach Club, founded in 1927, was eventually demolished. The Casa Del Mar, founded in 1926, and is currently a hotel.




(1932)* - Santa Monica beach, with Grand Hotel, Edgewater Beach Club, Casa del Mar, and other buildings at left.  


Historical Notes

“Resort and Hotel Notes,” Los Angeles Times, 10 July 1932. The article states: The opening of the Grand Hotel on the ocean front at Pico Boulevard last Wednesday was one of the most important of early summer events in Santa Monica. Formerly occupied by an exclusive beach club the building has been remodeled and redecorated to conform to the highest of hotel standards. …




(1930s)* - Image of the beach and surf in front of three multi-story beach clubs (from left to right): the Waverly Club, Edgewater Club and Casa Del Mar in south Santa Monica, California. The hotel in the foreground has a sign that reads "Waverly Club" on a partition on the beach.  





(1933)* - Swimmer Helene Madison and Santa Monica lifeguards at Grand Hotel, Santa Monica,  


Historical Notes

Helen Madison won three gold medals in freestyle event at the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, becoming, along with Romeo Neri of Italy, the most successful athlete at the 1932 Olympics.




(1944)* - The Grand Hotel, later renamed Chase Hotel, eventually became what we know today as the Sea Castle Apartments. Located on the beach in Santa Monica, between Ocean Front Walk and Appian Way, north of Pico Blvd.  


Historical Notes

The Breakers Beach Club, founded in 1926, was converted into the Grand Hotel in 1934. Today it is the Sea Castle Apartments.




(2019)* - The Sea Castle (previously Grand Hotel) was red-tagged after the 1994 Northridge Earthquake and rebuilt to what we see above, 178-unit, 8 story apartment building.  


Historical Notes

This is actually a new building which replaced the previous one. The older building was irretrievably damaged in the Northridge quake.



Club Casa del Mar

(1926)* - Aerial view looking east showing the beach and Club Casa del Mar in Santa Monica. Construction of the Edgewater Club can be seen at left edge of image, north of Pico Boulevard. Huntington Library  


Historical Notes

Club Casa del Mar opened in 1926 at the foot of Pico Blvd. The building was constructed by brothers E.A. "Jack" Harter and T.D. "Til" Harter, doing business as the H & H Holding Company, at a cost of $2 million.  It opened as Club Casa del Mar, a private beach club, on May 1, 1926.  Designed by Los Angeles architect Charles F. Plummer to reflect an Italian Renaissance Revival aesthetic.*




(ca. 1927)** - View of the beach in Santa Monica looking north from a a full parking lot.  Beyond the parking lot is a large grassy area with a covered walkway running down the middle. The Club Casa del Mar stands in the upper right. The pier in the distance is barely visible through a light fog.  An electric vehicle (left-center) is seen transporting passengers along the walkway that parallels the beach.  





(ca. 1926)* - Life boat drill with male and female lifeguards outside the new Club Casa del Mar, a private beach club at 1901 Promenade, Santa Monica.  


Historical Notes

Lifeguard services were initially developed during the early 1900s in response to the rise in popularity of the beach. Several municipalities had their own service before combining forces with Los Angeles County in the 1970s, creating the world's largest professional lifeguard service.^




(1945)^ – View showing the Del Mar Club when it was used as US Navy relocation center.  


Historical Notes

In 1941, the US Navy took over the building, utilizing it for enlisted soldiers during World War II.

By 1960, the hotel was shuttered. In 1967, Charles E. Dederich reopened the building as the Synanon Foundation, a drug rehabilitation program.

In 1978, Nathan Pritikin turned the building into the Prikikin Longevity Center, a nutrition and health care facility that closed in 1997.*




(1953)^ - View of the beach in front of the Club Casa del Mar. A variety of designs are on display as umbrellas cover the beach.  


Historical Notes

In 1998, The Edward Thomas Hospitality Corporation acquired the building and converted it into a luxury hotel called the Casa del Mar Hotel.*

The Casa del Mar Hotel is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.




Then and Now

Then and Now – Photo Courtesy of Augie Castagnola*  





Views from Palisades Park (originally Linda Vista Park)

(1924)#*#* – A woman stands at the edge of the Pacific Palisades looking down at a crowded Santa Monica Beach and Roosevelt Highway.  





(1927)* - Photo shows people on the top of the Palisades (left), which overlooks Santa Monica beach. The buildings, cars parked along the highway, and the crowds on the beach can be seen. The pier and amusement park is in the background. A new concrete staircase is seen that connects the top of the palisades to the beach.  


Historical Notes

The steps and bridge seen in the above photo are at the same location as the original '99 Steps" built in 1875. When the Pacific Coast Highway was built in 1927, new concrete steps and a bridge over the highway were built to allow for continued beach access.

Click HERE to see more on the original 1875-built '99 Steps".


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1927)* - View of Ocean Avenue shows many cars parked on one side of the road. A trolley can be seen in the distance.  





(1928)^*^* - Bird's-eye view of Main Street and surroundings, looking west-northwest toward Ashland Avenue, showing businesses, cars, pedestrians, and houses, with Santa Monica Pier in background.  




Van De Kamp's

(1929)* - An exterior corner view of the Parkhurst Building which here housed the Van De Kamp's Bakery on the bottom floor. Located at 185 Pier Ave. in Ocean Park.  


Historical Notes

Built in 1927, the Spanish Colonial Revival style building was designed by architects Marsh, Smith & Powell.  Norman F. Marsh also planned the arcaded streets and canals of Venice.#^




(2008)*^ - View of the Parkhurst Building as it appeared in 2008. The sign on the front door reads: "Planet Blue".  


Historical Notes

The Parkhurst Building was included in the National Register of Historic Places, California Register of Historic Places and designated as a Santa Monica landmark.#^




Clover Field (later Santa Monica Airport)

(ca. 1924)** - Aerial view of Clover Field Airport in Santa Monica, showing residences in the distance.  Hangars and other buildings are seen at center, amidst large expanses of open land. Several airplanes sit in the grass in front of and to the left of the buildings. A row of trees sits behind the building, running diagonally across the upper left corner of the image.  


Historical Notes

As early as 1917, aviators were landing on this grassy runway perched atop a mesa just southeast of Santa Monica.  It was surrounded by stalks of barley.

Soon the landing strip became a military airfield, and in 1922 the U.S. Army named it Clover Field in honor of Greayer Clover, a fighter pilot killed in France during the First World War. Since then the site has served many purposes. First it was the western headquarters of the Army’s reserve air corps, and later Douglas Aircraft produced its line of DC planes there.^




(1924)#+# - A growing crowd of spectators at Clover Field inspect the World Cruisers before their epic flight.  


Historical Notes

Douglas World Cruiser biplanes are the first aircraft to circumnavigate the globe in the weeks between April and September. The U.S. Army with Douglas World Cruisers, took off from Clover Field on St. Patrick’s day, March 17, 1924, and returned there after some 28,000 miles. #^#




(1924)#+# - "Douglas World Cruisers return to Clover Field, Santa Monica, CA on September 23rd, 1924."  


Historical Notes

Two planes made it back, after having covered 27,553 miles in 175 days, and were greeted on their return September 23, 1924 by a crowd of 200,000 (generously estimated).*^




(1929)^v^ – View showing some of the female aviators who competed in the first women’s transcontinental air derby which began in Santa Monica on August 18, 1929. Amelia Earhart is fourth from the right. Louise Thaden, who won the 2700-mile race, is fifth from the right.  


Historical Notes

In August 1929, seventy women held a United States pilot’s license. Of those, twenty young female aviators assembled at Clover Field on the afternoon of August 18 to take part in the groundbreaking competition. Navigating the 2700-mile course with only road maps on their laps, the women flew from Santa Monica to Cleveland via stops in Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Illinois and Indiana. Along the way, there were continuous mishaps and a constant need for maintenance. Some competitors were forced to drop out of the race. Florence “Pancho” Barnes and Ruth Nichols crashed their aircraft. Margaret Perry contracted typhoid fever. Claire Fahy’s plane was found to have suspicious mechanical damage. Sadly, pilot Marvel Crosson, who had just set an altitude record at 23,996 feet the previous May, perished in a tragic crash. The race continued despite these perils, malfunctions and calamities. And at every stop, enthusiastic crowds gathered to meet the female flyers they had read about in the press.

At the Cleveland Municipal Airport, a throng estimated at 18,000 people greeted the pilots as they finished the race. Louise Thaden came in first, and she was followed by fourteen others: Amelia Earhart, Ruth Elder, Edith Foltz, Mary Hazlip, Jessie Keith-Miller, Opal Kunz, Blanche Noyes, Gladys O’Donnell, Phoebe Omlie, Neva Paris, Thea Rasche, Bobbi Trout (finished untimed because of two forced landings), Mary von Mach, and Vera Dawn Walker.

The Air Derby set the stage for other major air race competitions for women and supported the notion, highly suspect at the time, that women could be accomplished pilots. The race also strengthened the bonds between the participants and inspired them to organize. A few months later in 1929, most of these female aviators became founding members of The Ninety-Nines, an organization of licensed women pilots founded to promote and support women in aviation. ^v^




(1929)* - Crowds gathered on the sides of Clover Field (Santa Monica Airport) to watch the air show. Several planes are parked on the field, waiting their turns to takeoff.  


Historical Notes

On June 15, 1927 Santa Monica City Council changed the name of Clover Field to Santa Monica Airport (SMO).

In 1928, the City acquired an additional 60 acres to expand the Airport and to accommodate an expanding Douglas plant.




(1929)^^^^ - View showing the Santa Monica Airport (previously named Clover Field). The Douglas Aircraft plant can be seen on the right.  


Historical Notes

Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. founded the Douglas Aircraft Company in 1921 with his first plant on Wilshire Boulevard. He built a plant in 1922 at Clover Field (Santa Monica Airport), which was in use for 46 years. In 1924, four Douglas-built planes took off from Clover Field to attempt the first aerial circumnavigation of the world. Two planes made it back, after having covered 27,553 miles in 175 days, and were greeted on their return September 23, 1924 by a crowd of 200,000 (generously estimated).*^

In 1929, Douglas enlarged its Santa Monica Airport operations, closed other facilities, and began to develop its early DC-2 and DC-3 airliners as well as other projects.




(1930s)^v^ – Close-up view of the original three big hangars on the north side of Clover Field. The large hangar at the back is the first Douglas Aviation hangar on the field, circa early 30's.  





(1940)^v^ – Aerial view of the Santa Monica Airport looking towards the southeast with the Douglas plant filling the bottom half of the photo.  Photo Date: August 7, 1940  


Historical Notes

Between 1941 and 1944 (During World War II), Douglas Aircraft becomes a major defense contractor, employing up to 44,000 workers who work three shifts, seven days a week. This economic engine transforms the city as thousands of new homes are built for the Douglas workers, creating Sunset Park and other neighborhoods. ^v^




(1940s)^^^^ - View of Douglas Aircraft with numerous planes positioned all around its plant. The surrounding neighborhood has been built up when compared to previous photo.  


Historical Notes

Douglas Aircraft Co. was a major player in the aircraft industry during World War II. Local historians note that World War II affected Santa Monica more than most places, as the Federal Government (for national security reasons) leased the Airport from the City to provide protection for Douglas Aircraft – then a major defense contractor located in Sunset Park. The government also participated in the expansion of the facility to accommodate the ever-growing production of military aircraft by Douglas Aircraft.^*^#




(1940s)##+ – View showing night production of fighters at Douglas Aircraft Company's assembly plant in Santa Monica.  


Historical Notes

Santa Monica CA- Along brilliantly lit assembly lines of Douglas Aircraft Company’s plant here, night crews are rushing production of DB-7B attackers bombers, recently acclaimed as night fighters in the defense of blacked out Britain. Equipped with heavy armament self-sealing fuel tanks and armor plating, these ships are proving swift and deadly in interception and downing Nazi raiders. R.A.F. early designated the DB-7 type the Boston and more recent the Havoc. Under a backlog in excess of $400,000,000 nearly 28,000 Douglas employees are working around the clock on attack ships, dive bombers and military transports for Americans and Britain. ##+




(ca. 1940)* - An impatient car starts across the crosswalk while men and women are still crossing towards the Douglas Aircraft Company factory, located at 2700 Ocean Park Boulevard, Santa Monica. An ice cream truck is parked and the attendant is ready to catch workers as they return to work.  


Historical Notes

At its peak, Douglas Aircraft, and Santa Monica Airport grew in size to its present 227 acres, employing 40,000 individuals.^*^#




(ca. 1945)*#*# - Playing such a vital role in military aircraft production during World War II, camouflage was used to make the plant and airstrip disappear - at least from the air.  


Historical Notes

During the war the airport area was cleverly disguised from the air with the construction of a false "town" (built with the help of Hollywood craftsman) suspended atop it.




(ca. 1950)^v^ – Santa Monica Airport with the Douglas Aircraft plant seen at right.  


Historical Notes

Clover Field (Santa Monica Airport) was once the site of the Army’s 40th Division Aviation, 115th Observation Squadron and became a Distribution Center after World War II.




(1953)^^ - Douglas DC-3, DC-4, DC-6, DC-7 lined up on the NE end of the Santa Monica Airport. The view is looking towards the east.  





(1967)#* – Aerial view looking west toward the Pacific Ocean showing Santa Monica Airport.  The Douglas Aircraft plant is on the right.  


Historical Notes

In later years, Douglas Aircraft merged with a rival to become McDonnell-Douglas Corporation (1967) and moved to Long Beach (1976).  The 5,000-foot runway at what was by then known as Santa Monica Airport was too short for the firm's growing jet production.  Two decades later, McDonnell-Douglas would be absorbed by yet another rival, Boeing Company.  When the corporation left town, Douglas' son, Donald Wills Douglas Jr, set up the Donald Douglas Museum and Library to commemorate his father's legacy.  Douglas Sr. died in 1981.  Nine years later, the nonprofit Museum of Flying, founded by golf course and real estate developer David Price, superseded the old museum as part of a $20-million airport overhaul.  Exhibits included vintage planes and an immense photo of when the airport and plant operated under cover of camouflage.*#*#




(2014)#+# - Santa Monica Airport (SMO) as it appears today.  


Historical Notes

On January 28, 2017, it was announced that Santa Monica City officials and the Federal Aviation Administration had reached an agreement to close the Santa Monica Airport on December 31, 2028 and return 227 acres of aviation land to the city for eventual redevelopment. It is anticipated that the airport land will be redeveloped into areas for parks, open space, recreation, education and/or cultural use.

In an attempt to reduce jet traffic, the city planned to shorten the runway from 4,973 feet to 3500 feet by repainting the runway and moving some navigational aids. The shortening has been formally completed as of 2017 December 23. *^


Click HERE to see more in Aviation in Early L.A.


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(1930)* - A view down the street showing the parade marchers, floats and spectators of the Baby Parade of 1930 as they march past the Ocean Park Plunge near the beachfront.  




Roosevelt Highway Opening (Last Section - Later PCH)

(1929)#* – Aerial view showing the opening ceremonies of the Roosevelt Highway through Malibu.  This was the last section of the highway linking Mexico with Canada.  The Roosevelt Highway today is the Pacific Coast Highway.  Photo taken from the Goodyear airship Volunteer and published in the June 30, 1929, Los Angeles Times.  


Historical Notes

LA Times Article dated June 30, 1929 reads:

For the first time in more than a century the general public was today given access to the scenic wonders of the famous Malibu Ranch when the last link in the Roosevelt Highway, extending from Canada to Mexico, was formally opened and dedicated by Gov. Young at ceremonies in Sycamore Canyon, near the Ventura-Los Angeles county line.




(1929)#* – First Sig Alert on the PCH?  An aerial photo shows cars waiting for opening ceremonies on the Roosevelt Highway through Malibu, the last section of the highway linking Mexico with Canada.  


Historical Notes

A motor caravan of 1500 cars filled with representatives of various organizations which have labored long and hard that this highway might be built left the Chamber of Commerce at Santa Monica at 9:30 o’clock this morning. The procession wended its way north to the canyon, where an arch was constructed on the highway. - LA Times, June 30, 1929




(1929)#* - A crowd of dignitaries attends a ceremony opening the Roosevelt Highway through Malibu.  


Historical Notes

Gov. Young, after a short speech in which he related some of the handicaps overcome in construction of the road, gave the signal to the young lady representatives of Canada and Mexico, who applied lighted tapers to an explosive so placed that its explosion severed a barrier across the highway. - LA Times, June 30, 1929




(1929)* - Opening of Roosevelt Highway (PCH) in Malibu.  


Historical Notes

The coast highway was formally dedicated as the 'Theodore Roosevelt Highway' when it was completed in 1929 and was generally known as the 'Roosevelt Highway' or 'Coast Highway' in the 1930s. It was designated as US 101A (Alternate) in 1936. State legislative action in 1964 changed many highway numbers in California, and US 101A became CA 1. In the same year, the state legislature offically named CA 1 'Pacific Coast Highway' in Orange, Los Angeles and Ventura Counties.




(1929)* - Photo shows "two views of the picturesque Santa Monica-Oxnard link of the Coast highway opening today, winding about the hills along the sunset shore." Photograph dated: June 29, 1929.  


Historical Notes

The section of Highway 1 from Santa Monica to Oxnard, via Malibu, went out to contract in 1925 as "Coast Boulevard" but was designated "Theodore Roosevelt Highway" when it was dedicated in 1929. The Highway 1 designation was first designated in 1939. Various portions of State Highway 1 have been posted and referred to by various names and numbers over the years. State construction of what became Highway 1 started after the state's third highway bond issue passed before 1910.*^





(ca. 1930)* - View of the coastline along Pacific Coast Highway looking north to Santa Monica, Pacific Palisades and Malibu.  


Historical Notes

This is a photograph of a Chris Siemer painting created for a display by the L.A. Chamber of Commerce.




(ca. 1930)* - Panoramic view showing the Roosevelt Highway running along the coastline of Santa Monica beach. The landmark Pacific Palisades Lighthouse, Bathhouse, and Restaurant at the location of the original Long Wharf can be seen in the distance.  





(1931)** – Winter view of the Pacific Palisades along the Roosevelt Highway, looking north from the Santa Monica Palisades, showing the landmark lighthouse and bathouse. Photo date: February 26, 1931.  





(ca. 1958)#*#* - Aerial view showing the Light House Restaurant (1927 - 1972) and Carl's at the Beach across Pacific Coast Highway, Santa Monica, at the location of the original Long Wharf (1893 - 1920).  




Carl's at the Beach (aka Carl's Sea-Air Motel, Carl's Sea-Air Lodge, and Sunspot Motel)

(ca. 1938)*#^ - Carl's-at-the-Beach Motel (later the Sun Spot Motel) on Pacific Coast Highway, one of the oldest motels in California. The motel was located across the street from the landmark Pacific Palisades Lighthouse, Bathhouse, and Restaurant.  


Historical Notes

The 12-room motel, designed in 1930s by two prominent Los Angeles architects, Burton Alexander Schutt and A. Quincy Jones, was among the first to offer a full range of services--from restaurant to gas station to garage space--for Americans beginning their love affair with the car and the open road.^




(1947)#*#* – View showing Carl's-at-the-Beach motel complex which included a drive-in restaurant. Photo by Julius Shulman  


Historical Notes

This motel was different--a streamlined V-shaped building, its two wings nestled snugly against the line of the bluffs where Potrero Canyon opens to the ocean. The public areas were close to the road, the sleeping rooms on a second story away from the traffic streaming by on what was then known as Roosevelt Highway. Motel guests, shielded from the cars' noise and fumes, could relax in the rear garden and look at the canyon beyond. Or they could gaze out the angled front windows of their rooms at a sweeping ocean vista.^




(1940s)^x^ - Full house at Carl's-at-the-Beach Drive-in Restaurant and motel complex.  





(1940s)#^^ – Close-up view showing Carl's Drive-in at the Sea Air Lodge complex (aka Carl's-at-the-Beach)  


Historical Notes

Drive-in Restaurants flourished in Southern California during the 1930s and 40s. Click HERE to see more Early LA Drive-in Restaurants.





(1940s)^x^ – Looking over the roofline of Carl’s-by-the-Beach Drive-in towards the ocean.





(1947)#*#* - View showing Carl's at the Beach Motel (later known as the Sunspot), a 12-room motel, designed in 1938. The car parked on the left is a beautiful 1941 Buick two-door sedanette. Photo by Julius Shulman  


Historical Notes

By the mid-1970s, the property at the foot of the Pacific Palisades bluffs had evolved into the Sunspot, a bar and mecca for the disco dance craze.

The Sunspot complex was closed in the 1980s and sat empty for nearly 10 years.  The Los Angeles Recreation and Parks Department, which owned the property, hoped eventually to renovate and lease the building as a motel and restaurant.  However in 1994 a landslide crushed the westerly portion of the building—the part that would have been the restaurant.  Since then the City has demolished what was left of the buildings.^


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Will Rogers State Beach

(1930s)* - View from the bluffs, looking North to Will Rogers State Beach and Pacific Coast Highway.  


Historical Notes

The beach is named after actor Will Rogers. In the 1920s, Rogers bought the land and developed a ranch along the coast. He owned 186 acres along the coast in what is now Pacific Palisades. Rogers died in a plane crash in 1935. Then when his widow, Betty, died in 1944, the ranch became a state park.

The Will Rogers State Beach lifeguard headquarters is the site of the former Port of Los Angeles Long Wharf, a California Historical Landmark, site number 881.^



Chautauqua Boulevard and Pacific Coast Highway

(mid-1920s)^x^ - View looking south on Roosevelt Highway at the intersection with Chautauqua Boulevard and Channel Road. A 'Barbecue' restaurant can be seen on the southeast corner. The crowded beach to the right will become Will Rogers State Beach in 1944.  


Historical Notes

Will Rogers Beach was donated to the State of California by his widow, Betty, in 1944.  The County of Los Angeles has been operating the beach since 1975.^

Note the old tracks on Roosevelt Highway are still there in the above photo. The railroad tracks were removed when Roosevelt Highway was widened in 1934.




(1930s)* - View shows Roosevelt Highway (now PCH) running parallel to the Santa Monica beach at the intersection with Chautauqua Boulevard. Cars parked along the sides of the highway and crowds on the beach can be seen. A bath house sign, several restaurants and a couple of gas stations are on the left side. The Santa Monica pier can be seen in the distance.  





(1930s)** – Close-up view of the intersection of Chautauqua Boulevard and Pacific Coast Highway in Santa Monica. The highway extends into the distance at right while Chautauqua runs from left to right. There are several buildings visible on the sides of Chautauqua, and many early-model automobiles are parked along the side of the road. A man is standing in the foreground at left, holding a basket, and several other pedestrians are visible in the distance at right. A hill covered with large houses can be seen in the distance at left. Legible signs include, from left to right: "Ship Ahoy Cafe Unique Excellent Food Luncheon 50 65 Dinner 65 85 $1.00", "Ballanlymes Sandwiches", "Lee Rose Casino Lunch Barbequed Mets Hamburger Hot Dogs", "Sam's Rite Spot", "Clam Chowder", and "ABC".  





(1930s)** - Panoramic view of West Channel Road in Santa Monica from Chautauqua Boulevard and Pacific Coast Highway.  Legible signs include, from left to right: "Liquor Drugs", "Grocery", "Eat Real Chili", "Ballanlymes Sandwiches", "Lee Rose Casino Lunch Barbequed Mets Hamburger Hot Dogs", "Sam's Rite Spot", "Clam Chowder", "ABC", "Eastside Beer", and "Barbeque".  





(1930s)^** - Intersection of Pacific Coast Highway, Chautauqua Blvd. and Channel Road, Santa Monica.  





(1938)^^^^ - View of the Santa Monica Canyon flood of 1938. The sign on top of the hill reads: HUNTINGTON PALISADES.  


Historical Notes

In 1938, PCH was damaged by one of wettest seasons ever to hit Southern California.




(1938)#*#* – Repairing Pacific Coast Highway after the great storm of 1938. The intersection of PCH and Chautauqua Blvd is seen in the background.  Photo Date:  March 7, 1938  





(ca. 1945)** - Aerial view of the intersection of Chautauqua Boulevard, West Channel Road and Pacific Coast Highway.  The Canyon Market Groceries and Liquor building is at center, and to the left is a billboard sign for the Lindomar Hotel. In the left foreground Pacific Coast Highway separates the market from a partly filled parking lot and the beach. The area where the market is located appears to be cut out of the solid rock hill in the background.  





(ca. 1950)^** - View showing automobile traffic at the intersection of Pacific Coast Highway, Chautauqua Boulevard, and Channel Road in Santa Monica. Two boys are sitting on a railing watching traffic across from storefront signs that read "Canyon Market", "Canyon Liquor Store", and "Gloryfied frankfurters."  





Then and Now

(1930s vs 2022)* - Intersection of Pacific Coast Highway, Chautauqua Blvd. and Channel Road, Santa Monica.  





Sunset and PCH

(1940)* – View looking NE showing Sunset Boulevard where it comes into Pacific Coast Highway (PCH), after a storm.  In the foreground can be seen the erosion of a section of the highway. Photo taken from site of Gladstones today.  


Historical Notes

This section of Pacific Coast Highway was formally dedicated as the 'Theodore Roosevelt Highway' when it was completed in 1929 and was generally known as the 'Roosevelt Highway' or 'Coast Highway' in the 1930s. It was designated as US 101A (Alternate) in 1936. State legislative action in 1964 changed many highway numbers in California, and US 101A became CA 1. In the same year, the state legislature offically named CA 1 'Pacific Coast Highway' in Orange, Los Angeles and Ventura Counties.*

Gas station on left is still there. Got remodeled 15- 20 years ago. Click HERE for contemporary view.




(1960s)* - Sunset Boulevard and Pacific Coast Highway.  


Historical Notes

The Standard Oil Station pictured was owned by Clint Eastwood's father.




Then and Now

(1940 vs. 2022)* – Looking NE on Sunset Boulevard from PCH showing how the area has evolved over the last 80 years. Current image taken from driveway of Gladstones.  





Marion Davies Mansion

(ca. 1930)** - View of Santa Monica homes along Pacific Coast Highway, looking south. The highway is in the foreground at center and follows the contours of the coast as it disappears into the distance at center. The right side of the road is lined with an assortment of large beach houses including Marion Davies' mansion (center-right) which is still under construction. On the left side of the highway, a railroad runs parallel to the road and the steep cliffs of Palisades Park rise above the tracks. There are trees along the top and bottom of the cliffs, but the faces are bare rock. There is a small wharf at center that sticks out above the low tide, and a long pier is visible in the background at right.  


Historical Notes

William Randolph Hearst might have been the first media mogul of the 20th Century. In his day, Hearst owned 28 major newspapers and 18 magazines, as well as radio stations and movie companies. Santa Monica’s Gold Coast was so desirable that in the 1920s, Hearst, one of the richest and most powerful men in America, bought 4.91 acres of beachfront property so that he could build a mansion for his mistress, actress Marion Davies. #^*^




(ca. 1930)^x^ – Postcard view looking south from Palisades Park showing the Marion Davies Residence at center-right.  Note the streetcar running down the tracks at lower-right.  





(ca. 1931)^.^ - Closer view of Marion Davies’ home in Santa Monica, now with the addition of tennis courts. Construction material is seen at lower-right for future guest house. Cars are parked on the dirt median between the tracks and the two-lane Roosevelt Highway. Photo C.C. Pierce  


Historical Notes

The railroad tracks will be removed in 1934 when Roosevelt Highway is widened to 4 lanes.




(ca. 1932)#^^ - View from the bluffs of Palisades Park, with railroad tracks and the Palisades Beach Road (part of the Roosevelt Highway, later Pacific Coast Highway), below, and the Santa Monica Pier and Ocean Park Pier visible in the distance. The mansion beach house of actress Marion Davies is seen at center with new guest house still under construction at lower center-right.  





(ca. 1932)* - View of Marion Davies’ 110-room mansion on Santa Monica beach designed by architect Julia Morgan and built circa 1926. The guest house closest to the camera still exists. Roosevelt Highway would be widened in 1934.  


Historical Notes

William Randolph Hearst commissioned William Edward Flannery to construct a grand beach house for his longtime companion, actress Marion Davies. In 1926, architect Julia Morgan (the architect of Hearst Castle) was hired to complete the design and oversee construction of the estate, which featured an ornate swimming pool, several houses, gardens and an opulent 110-room mansion. The beach house served as Davies’ primary residence from 1929 to 1942.*^*^




(ca. 1933)^x^ – Close-up front view showing the Marion Davies mansion.  Two cars are parked across the highway next to the tracks.  Roosevelt Highway would be widened in 1934.  





(1934)**^ – Postcard view showing the “Beach Homes of the Motion Picture Stars” with Marion Davies’ house at lower right.   


Historical Notes

Photo was taken shorty after railroad tracks were removed and Roosevelt Highway widened (1934).




(late 1930s)#^^* - Closer view of Marion Davies' beach house (mansion) on the Pacific Coast Highway, Santa Monica  


Historical Notes

Julia Morgan created a three-story, 34-bedroom Georgian mansion on the Pacific Coast Highway in Santa Monica. Called "Ocean House" or "The Beach House," it was the grandest property in the neighborhood. Rumor has it the cost was $7 million dollars. #^*^




(late 1930s)* - Aerial view showing the 4.91-acre Marion Davies estate in Santa Monica, designed by Julia Morgan. The building on the left is the guest house.  


Historical Notes

Marion Davies was born Marion Douras in Brooklyn, New York on January 3rd, 1897. She always wanted to be a star. When she met William Randolph Hearst, she had already made a name for herself on the Broadway stage. Rumor has it she wrote her first film, "Runaway Romany," directed by her brother-in-law, George Lederer. 1918’s "Cecilia of the Pink Roses" was her first film backed by Hearst. Then her marketing campaign began.

Over the next ten years, Davies filmed an average of almost three films a year. She was a tireless worker, always trying to live up to the relentless promotional campaigns launched by Hearst.

In the early twenties, she and Hearst relocated their movie company, Cosmopolitan Productions, to California to join forces with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios. Once the Beach House was finished, Marion evolved into Hollywood's premiere hostess. Her parties attracted the day’s biggest stars, international dignitaries and business titans. Those who knew Davies say she never took herself seriously and was beloved by all who knew her for her gracious spirit and charitable tendencies. #^*^




(1940s)#^^ - Image of the mansion beach house of actress Marion Davies (which later became Ocean House, or the Oceanhouse Hotel, and Sand and Sea Beach Club), with the bluffs below Palisades Park visible in the background.  





(ca. 1930s)#*^* - Postcard view from the beach, showing the Marion Davies mansion. The Santa Monica bluffs are seen in the background. The mansion's guest house, on the left, still exists today.  


Historical Notes

The three-story, 118-room, 34-bedroom, 55-bath Georgian mansion had 37 fireplaces, Tiffany chandeliers, a ballroom, a dining room from a Venetian palazzo, and a room that was coated in gold leaf. It was accompanied by three guesthouses, two swimming pools, tennis courts and dog kennels and was called “Ocean House." #***




(ca. 1930s)#*** - View showing guests enjoying a day by the pool at Marion Davies' mansion in Santa Monica.  





(ca. 1950)#^^  - Aerial view of Ocean House (or the Oceanhouse Hotel) and the Sand and Sea Beach Club on the property that was formerly the mansion of actress Marion Davies on the beach in Santa Monica, California, with Palisades Beach Road (part of Pacific Coast Highway) and the bluffs below Palisades Park in the background.  


Historical Notes

In 1947, Davies sold the estate and it was converted into the Oceanhouse Hotel and Sand & Sea Beach Club. The main mansion was demolished in 1956, and the property was sold to the State of California in 1959. The Sand & Sea Club remained popular with regulars all the way through until the 1990s.*^*^

In 2005, the Annenberg Foundation, at the recommendation of Wallis Annenberg, made a generous financial commitment to preserve the site for public use. The Annenberg Community Beach House at Santa Monica State Beach opened to the public on April 25, 2009, representing a unique partnership between the Annenberg Foundation, California State Parks and the City of Santa Monica. The total construction costs were roughly $30 million.*^




(2012)* - View of the restored Marion Davies Mansion pool, now part of the Annenberg Community Beach House.  


Historical Notes

The mansion's original pool was restored by the Annenberg Foundation and opened to the public on a fee for entry basis in 2009. The pool is trimmed in tile and has a marble deck. The mansion's original guest house also still exists and is used for events. New facilities include a pool house with changing areas and a second floor view deck, a new event house, a splash pad, gardens, beach volleyball/tennis courts, a children's play area, public restrooms, beach rentals, and a cafe.*^




Lasky Residence

(1920s)**^ – Postcard view showing the beach home of Jesse Lasky (one of the founders of Paramount Pictures), located at 609 Ocean Front Walk across from the Sorrento/Gables.  


Historical Notes

Filled with antiques and guests, the Lasky home became a magnet for stars, performers, and executives. From hosting lavish open air extravaganzas to spontaneous get-togethers, the beach house was where Hollywood culture maven Bess Lasky held court.**^




(1928)^*^* – View showing the Jesse L. Lasky residence, with Spanish tile roof, large balcony, enclosed and open patios, umbrellas, and playground equipment, with beach and wall in foreground and cliffs in background.  


Historical Notes

"'Our Santa Monica beach house, 609 Ocean Front, was a two-story hacienda surrounding a garden with a fountain. It originally had twelve guest suites...[which] my father enlarged..still further. We became a kind of hotel for the famous...I can remember no time when we were not inundated with house guests.” – Jesse L. Lasky, Jr.

In 1930, Lasky traded Paramount shares and the beach house to Harry Warner for $250K.**^


* * * * *




(ca. 1930)* - Roosevelt Highway, later renamed the Pacific Coast Highway (PCH), as seen from Palisades Park in Santa Monica. The highway runs parallel with the many beach clubs, restaurants, and residences on the coast. In the distance are Pacific Palisades, where the landmark Lighthouse bathhouse is located, and the Santa Monica Mountains.  


Historical Notes

The Hollywood set and the uber-rich were drawn to Santa Monica’s beach in the 1920s & 30s. The opulent residences they constructed north of the Pier and fabulous parties they threw earned this stretch of sand the nickname of “Gold Coast”.

Many other Hollywood stars, producers and movie studio moguls also built homes on Santa Monica's beach in the 1920s.  Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford were among the first to make the move.*^*^



(1931)* - Looking down upon the Roosevelt Highway (later Pacific Coast Highway) and crowds at the beach from the cliffs in Pacific Palisades.  




(1934)* - Caption reads: A new link in the Roosevelt highway and an improved coastal boulevard which replaces the old narrow road along the beach at the foot of the Santa Monica Palisades, will be formally opened and dedicated on Monday afternoon. Governor F. F. Merriam and state, county and municipal officials will join in ceremonies which will climax months of work. Photo shows the highway link, which has been widened to 80 feet and extends nearly one mile. Arrow shows where boulevard rises to connect with Wilshire Boulevard on Ocean Avenue.  



* * * * *



Sorrento Club Garage (later known as the Sorrento Ruins)

(1936)** - View showing a car travelling south on Roosevelt Highway (later PCH) in Santa Monica with the Sorrento Beach Club garage on the left and the California Incline in the distance.  


Historical Notes

IIn the 1920s, “Promoters decided to create a fantastic club (Gables Beach Club) and hotel complex on the cliffs at the foot of Montana Avenue...Designed to emulate the grandest castle-like structures of Europe.....would be twenty-one stories high and would include the first new bridge to span the beach road." - (from the book) Santa Monica Beach by Ernest Marquez




(ca. 1950)^.^ – Panoramic view toward the Palisades bluffs showing the ruins of the Sorrento Club with parking lot seen in the foreground.  


Historical Notes

Originally designed to be 21 storys tall, only three stories were completed (1928) when the Great Depression hit. The smaller building would be used as a garage for Gables Beach Club across the street until a fire partially destroyed the club (1930). Within two years the club was rebuilt and reopened as the Sorrento Beach Club and the 3-story building continued to be used as a parking garage until 1962.

Click HERE to see a postcard illustration of the proposed 21-story Gables Hotel.




(ca. 1952)#^ – View showing the ruins of the Gables Hotel, later Sorrento Club parking structure with the Palisades bluffs in the background. The structure was known as the Sorrento Ruins.  


Historical Notes

The Sorrento Ruins were left standing until the 1970s and then demolished.  Today, part of the foundation is still visible and is being used as a retaining wall.


* * * * *



California Incline (1930 +)

(ca. 1930)* - View of Santa Monica looking south. On left is the Pacific Palisades Park which overlooks bathing houses, buildings and beach below. The California Incline runs diagonally from lower-right to top-center. In the far background is the Santa Monica pier.   


Historical Notes

Footpaths like the Sunset Trail and stairways like the 99 Steps preceded it, but the California Incline was the first automobile shortcut over Santa Monica’s ocean bluffs. When it opened around 1905, Linda Vista Drive (as it was then called) was a dirt path carved into the cliffside. Only later was it paved and named for its intersection with California Avenue. *#*




(1930s)* - Five women are seen sitting and standing on a open bed truck on top of the California Incline. A sign at the front of the truck reads, "Lifeguard." The woman standing holds her left hand out, as if she's welcoming you to the beach, which can be seen in the background.  





(ca. 1938)** – View showing a man looking down toward the Santa Monica coastline from the top of the California Incline. Photo by Dick Whittington  





(ca. 1938)^v^ – Postcard view showing cars traveling up and down the California Incline, which runs between Ocean Avenue and Pacific Coast Highway.  Palisades Park is on the right.  





(1940s)#^^ - Postcard view showing the California Incline road with automobiles, leading down from bluffs and Palisades Park down to Pacific Coast Highway.  Beach houses, the Santa Monica Pier with the La Monica Ballroom at its center, and other buildings are also in this view, with Ocean Park amusement piers in the distance.  





(1960s)* - Heading up the California Incline to Ocean Ave in Santa Monica showing a pedestrian crossing not seen in previous photos.  





(1959)^x^ – View showing a woman walking down the California Incline toward the Pacific Coast Highway.  





(2013)^ -  Two men make their way up the California Incline using the roadway instead of the narrow sidewalk.  


Historical Notes

In the early 1990s, the California Incline was deemed “structurally insufficient” and in 2007, funding was finally secured to rebuild the historic structure, most of it from a welcome federal grant. In April 2015, after more bureaucratic delays, the California Department of Transportation, in partnership with the City of Santa Monica, began construction of a new bridge that met current seismic standards while paying homage to the Incline’s PWA-era look as seen in the rebuilt balustrade, and the restored neon sign.*




(2020)* – California Incline after retrofitting and expansion. The expanded Incline is now multi-modal, accommodating traffic lanes, as well as walking and biking lanes.  Also seen here are two new pedestrian bridges which connect to the Incline, one leading back up the bluffs to Palisades Park and the other down to the beach.  


Historical Notes

Reopened with much civic fanfare on September 1, 2016, today’s Incline consists of a reinforced concrete slab supported by 96 concrete pilings thrust deeply into the bluffs. Over 1,000 soil nails stabilize the erosion-prone sandstone along the eastern edge of the bridge.

The expanded Incline is now multi-modal, accommodating three lanes of traffic, as well as walking and biking lanes that have become popular with families and fitness buffs alike. Two new pedestrian bridges, impressive in their own right, connect to the Incline, one leading back up the bluffs to Palisades Park and the other down to the beach.*




(2020)^.^ – Sunset view of the California Incline looking North as seen from Palisades Park. Photo by Edward Grad  


Historical Notes

In addition to its contributions to the mobility and magnificence of Santa Monica, the California Incline has played a role in pop culture, appearing in TV shows and such films as It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (1963) and Knocked Up (2007). The Incline has also been an element in novels, including In A Lonely Place by Dorothy B. Hughes (1942) and the Harry Bosch detective series. It is also featured in the popular video game series Grand Theft Auto.*


Click HERE to see more Early Views of the California Incline (1905+).


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McClure Tunnel (originally Olympic Tunnel)

(1934)^x^ – View showing the construction of the Olympic Tunnel (renamed the McClure Tunnel in 1969).  


Historical Notes

The new tunnel connected Roosevelt Highway with Olympic Boulevard, which leads into Lincoln Boulevard.

The tunnel was formerly used, before its reconstruction into a much larger capacity road, by Pacific Electric Streetcar system.




(1935)* - Construction of the Roosevelt Highway Tunnel (Olympic Tunnel) under Ocean Avenue. One of the towers of the Deauville Club can be seen on the left. Photo date: December 2, 1935  


Historical Notes

Later named McClure Tunnel after Robert McClure who was a proponent of the Santa Monica Freeway, a member of the state highway commission and known locally as editor and publisher of the Santa Monica Evening Outlook. Roosevelt Highway of course, became known as Pacific Coast Highway.




(1935)* - Construction of the Roosevelt Highway Tunnel under Ocean Avenue on December 2, 1935.  






(1936)#** – Ceremonies marking the opening of a 400-foot tunnel beneath Colorado and Ocean Avenues in Santa Monica on February 1, 1936. The tunnel, originally known as the Olympic Tunnel and later renamed McClure Tunnel, joins the Roosevelt Highway (later, Pacific Coast Highway) with Olympic and Lincoln boulevards.  


Historical Notes

Photo caption reads: "Through tunnel to coast at Santa Monica went a cavalcade of autos when the ribbon was cut February 1st. Flat arch construction and four traffic lanes are features."

"Plans for an elaborate dedicatory ceremony which included a parade and barbecue in the tunnel were called off shortly before the exercises were to commence because of the unfavorable weather conditions." #**





(1936)^#^ – View showing hundreds of people at dedication of the new Santa Monica tunnel linking Roosevelt Highway with Olympic and Lincoln boulevards (Feb. 1, 1936).  


Historical Notes

The tunnel became known as the Olympic Tunnel. In 1969, it was renamed the Robert E. McClure Tunnel – honoring the former editor of the Santa Monica Outlook. Today the tunnel connects the Santa Monica Freeway and Pacific Coast Highway.^#^

Actor Doug McClure was part of the family whose name is on this famous tunnel that leads to the sea.




(1936)^#^ – View showing a new Ford V-8 Fordor sedan as it exits the new tunnel in Santa Monica onto Olympic Boulevard, which leads to Lincoln Boulevard. The tunnel connected those streets with the Roosevelt Highway. The above photo was published in the Feb. 23, 1936 Los Angeles Times automotive page.  


Historical Notes

The roof line of the Deauville Club located on Santa Monica Beach can be seen in the background.




(1936)#^^ – Night view looking west toward the entrance to the new McClure Tunnel from the Olympic Boulevard side.  Photo Date:  May 22, 1936  





(2022)* - Contemporary view of the eastern portal of the McClure Tunnel.  



* * * * *





Route 66


(1936)^**^ - Postcard view of the Santa Monica Pier and Beach looking from Palisades Park. Route 66, End of the Trail sign at lower right.




Historical Notes

In 1936, Route 66 was extended from downtown Los Angeles to Santa Monica, today the intersection of Olympic Boulevard and Lincoln Boulevard (a segment of State Route 1). Even though there is a plaque dedicating Route 66 as the Will Rogers Highway placed at the intersection of Ocean Boulevard and Santa Monica Boulevard, the highway never terminated there.

Route 66 was unofficially named "The Will Rogers Highway" by the U.S. Highway 66 Association in 1952, although a sign along the road with that name appeared in the John Ford film, The Grapes of Wrath, which was released in 1940, twelve years before the association gave the road that name. A plaque dedicating the highway to Will Rogers is still located in Santa Monica (Ocean and Santa Monica Boulevards).*^


* * * * *



Palisades Park

(1937)* - Corner view of Palisades Park (right), shows the 297 foot drop-off onto the palisades. Parts of the Roosevelt Highway can be seen and the Santa Monica beach is in the background.  



Statue of Santa Monica

(1937)* - View of the statue St. Monica for whom the city is named. The statue is located in Palisades Park in Santa Monica. Eugene Morahan is the sculptor.  


Historical Notes

The 18-ft. high Art Deco Sculpture for whom Santa Monica was named was sculpted in 1934 by Eugene Morahan as a Public Works of Art project and presented to the citizens of Santa Monica by the Federal Government.

Morahan and his wife (Grace) lived at the Tennis Club on Third Street in Santa Monica where the statue was caste in the backyard. It was to be installed during the celebration of Pioneer Day and as Morahan was under great pressure to complete his work by that deadline, he contacted his good friend and fellow sculptor, Gutzon Borglum to leave his work on Mount Rushmore and come down to help him finish his work on Saint Monica.+#




(2007)*^ - Close-up view of the statue of Santa Monica by Eugene Morahan. Photo by Sharon Mollerus  


Historical Notes

The statue is located at the foot of Wilshire Boulevard just a block or so north of Santa Monica Boulevard.




(ca. 1940)#^# – Postcard view showing a couple enjoying a leisurely day in the shade of a palm tree at Palisades Park, Santa Monica.  


* * * * *




(1928)^*^* - View of intersection of Santa Monica Blvd. and Third Street facing northeast, with pedestrians crossing street, vehicles in foreground and background, businesses, and Santa Monica City Hall. Legible business signs include: The Florsheim Shoe, Santa Monica Radio Co., Jeweler Ellis, Security Trust & Savings Bank. A clock on the right reads 12:20.  




(ca. 1926)#^ – View showing the intersection of Fourth Street and Santa Monica Boulevard with Santa Monica City Hall on the northwest corner, Security Trust and Savings Bank on the northeast corner, the Henshey-Tegner Building on the southeast corner, and Pacific Southwest Bank on the southwest corner.  


Historical Notes

In the 1920s, Santa Monica was thriving both as a popular tourist destination and as home to a budding aviation industry and other businesses. Though Santa Monicans had long trekked to downtown Los Angeles for important shopping, Santa Monica’s downtown was at last coming into its own as a full-service retail center. Henshey’s Department Store, founded by Harry C. Henshey and his partners, was crucial to this change. *##^



Henshey's Department Store

(ca. 1925)*##^ -  View looking at the southeast corner of Santa Monica Boulevard and Fourth Street showing the Henshey’s Department Store shortly after it was constructed.  


Historical Notes

Henshey’s was Santa Monica’s first department store and, at four stories, one of the city’s tallest commercial buildings. The building itself was owned by Charles Tegner, one of Henshey’s partners. Tegner built many commercial structures in Santa Monica and was a key figure in the city’s business community at the time. The architect selected for the building was also well-known locally—Henry C. Hollwedel.  Hollwedel began his career as an architect in New York but relocated here and completed many important commissions in Santa Monica, including the Santa Monica Bay Woman’s Club and the Mayfair Theatre.

The Henshey’s store, as originally designed by Hollwedel, was a steel frame and brick structure in the Beaux Arts Classical Revival style, a grandiose style often used in public buildings of the time. The original store featured bays of paired windows embellished with terra cotta details, as well as an imposing cornice and a terra cotta frieze. Santa Monica’s Outlook newspaper reported at the time that Henshey’s was “one of the best advertisements Santa Monica has ever had…its imposing bulk, towering over the adjacent structures around it arouses interest and speculation.” Even more important, Henshey’s showed that “Santa Monica is no longer a village with village stores and standards. She has grown up and is now a big city.” *##^


* * * * *



Central Tower Building

(1928)^*^* – View looking south on 4th Street from Santa Monica Boulevard. The Central Tower Building is at upper right.  


Historical Notes

Constructed in 1928, the symmetrical Central Tower Building is designed in the Art Deco style. The irregular-shaped building is comprised of two-story store fronts along the west side of 4th Street with an eight-story central tower rising from the middle of the 4th Street facing volume.**#




(1928)* - Night view showing the newly construct Central Tower Building, 1424 Fourth Street.  


Historical Notes

The beautiful Art-Deco style eight story commercial building was designed by Morien Eugene Durfee who was also the architect for the Georgian Hotel on Ocean Avenue.  It was constructed by C.L. Freeman and J. Wesley Forder and developed by the Central Tower Investment Company and A.P. Creel.




(1930s)*^# - A woman walks by parked cars lining the street in front of the Central Tower Building in Santa Monica. The Art-Deco Central Tower Building was the beachfront city’s first skyscraper.  





(ca. 1939)#*#* – View looking north on 4th Street toward Santa Monica Blvd. with the Central Tower Building on the left and Henshey’s Department Store on the right.  


Historical Notes

Although Henshey’s was praised when first constructed in 1925, the building was altered significantly as the years passed and architectural fashions changed. In 1936 it underwent a major remodel as the ground floor and mezzanine were remade in the Streamline Moderne style so popular in the 30s. At the same time, a one-story extension (also Streamline Moderne) was annexed to the building along Fourth Street. By the 1960s this look too was outdated, and in 1962 both the original four-story building and the annex were entirely encased behind punched aluminum screens, changing their look dramatically.

Henshey’s Department Store occupied these buildings from 1925 until 1992 when recession and competition from other retailers led to the store’s closing. Then, in the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the Henshey’s building and annex were damaged beyond repair and the landmark was demolished soon after. *##^


* * * * *




(1938)* - View of Santa Monica Boulevard and 4th Street looking north. The City Hall, Altman's Fine Furniture store and a Grand Central Market is on the left. Security First National Bank, Stages Motor Coach and a Chop Suey restaurant can be seen on the right.  




(1938)* - General view of the main business intersection looking east from City Hall at Fourth Street and Santa Monica Boulevard. Hensley's Department Store can be seen in the background, and a bus is in the foreground.  




(1938)* - People getting off the bus in Santa Monica. It is one of the Bay Cities Transit Co. buses, which are used as a means of local transportation in Santa Monica. Across the street is a branch of Security-First National Bank.  


* * * * *



Wilshire Theatre (later NuWilshire Theatre)

(1931)* - Exterior view of the Wilshire Theatre (later NuWilshire Theatre), located at 1314 Wilshire Boulevard in Santa Monica. Marquee reads "Gala premier opening Wednesday."  


Historical Notes

John M. Cooper designed this movie theater, which includes both Neoclassical and Art Deco architectural elements. When it opened in 1931 for stage and film productions, the theater had seating for 1,500 all in one auditorium, however two auditoriums were created in 1977 under the ownership of Mann Theatres. In the early 1990’s, Landmark Theatres took over operations and changed its name to NuWilshire.



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El Miro Theatre

(1938)^^^- View of the newly opened El Miro Theatre decorated with banners. A man on the roof appears to be installing additional banners. Bob and Millie's Coffee Shop is seen on the left. Sign reads: 2 Major Features - ANY SEAT - ANY TIME - 20 CENTS  


Historical Notes

Opened in 1938, the only part of the old El Miro Theatre that is left is the facade. The theater was razed in the late 80’s and the newer Cineplex Broadway 4 Theatre is located on that site now.***




(1938)^^^ - Interior view of the El Miro Theatre showing the Art Deco design on walls and ceiling.  


Historical Notes

The El Miro Theatre was designed by Norman W. Alpaugh.




(1938)^^^ - The Streamline Moderne El Miro Theatre located at 1441 Third Street in Santa Monica.  


Historical Notes

From the 60’s thru the 80’s, the El Miro Theatre was part of many chains including Century, Loew’s, GCC, and Metropolitan Theatres (Metropolitan being the last). Loew’s redressed the house in the early 70’s with those purple and blue curtains of that era. That was the last time this theater received a makeover before it was closed and demolished.***


* * * * *




Clock Tower Building (aka Bay Cities Guaranty Building and Crocker Bank Building)

(ca. 1930)* - Elevated view of the twelve story Clock Tower Building, located at 225 Santa Monica Boulevard. Various businesses and storefronts in foreground including: Bank of Italy, Harney Travel Bureau, Elizabeth Haynes Millinery, Los Angeles Times, barber shop, and Rials Cafe.  


Historical Notes

The Clock Tower Building was built between 1929 and 1930 in Art Déco style. For around 40 years it held the record for the tallest building in the Santa Monica skyline. The skyscraper was commissioned by the Bay Cities Guaranty and Loan Association to the Californian architects Albert Raymond Walker and Percy Augustin Eisen, whose firm, Walker & Eisen, with a staff of more than 50 draughtsmen, was the most important leading practice in California in the 1920s. Among its many completed projects, the firm had recently designed the extraordinary skyscraper in the Romanesque Revival style known as the Fine Arts Building in Los Angeles (now owned by Sorgente Group of America), one of the most representative buildings in the city.^




(ca. 1940)^^ - Image of the Bay Cities Guaranty Building, also known as the Clock Tower Building or Crocker Bank Building, located at 225 Santa Monica Boulevard in Santa Monica.  Signs around the building read "Southern Pacific," "Toys," "Towne Cleaners," "Watch Clinic," and "Garretts Virginia Dare Wine" printed on a van across the street from the building.  


Historical Notes

The Clock Tower Building, not far from the beaches washed by the ocean and with an unobstructed view of the nearby mountains, occupies a rectangular lot located at 225 Santa Monica Boulevard, in the heart of the city’s business district and close to the main thoroughfare Third Street Promenade. The ground floor of the skyscraper, in the form of a compact parallelepipedal block surmounted by a tower, is occupied by retail spaces, and the upper stories by offices.^




(1945)* - Painting the top of the Bay Cities Guaranty Building clock tower.  


Historical Notes

Constructed in 1929 it was the first high-rise in Santa Monica. It was designed by Albert Walker and Percy Eisen in the Art Deco style. Walker and Eisen were responsible for numerous notable structures in Los Angeles, such as the home of the former United Artists Theatre in downtown Los Angeles now the Ace Hotel, the Beverly Wilshire hotel in Beverly Hills.*




(2008)^.^ – View showing the Crocker Bank Building (Clock Tower Building) as seen from across the street.  Note the second clock in the right foreground.  


Historical Notes

The seemingly monolithic image of the building is actually enlivened by slight volumetric shifts that divide the high-rise into three sections: a wide basement level characterized by the large entrances to the retail areas; a robust second block, slightly tapered towards the top, that houses offices from the second floor to the twelfth, and lastly a square stepped tower which, placed off-centre with respect to the base, rises skywards and has clock-faces on each side – hence the name Clock Tower.^




(2001)* – Closer view of the Art Deco eight story apartment hotel designed by architect M. Eugene Durfee.  


Historical Notes

The twelve office floors are crowned by a crenellated border, where the most ornate decorations on the cladding are concentrated. The tapered, stepped tower on the top is also faced with white marble slabs, which form a zigzag pattern in relief on the sides and around the edge of the summit; it is visible from everywhere in the city and rendered instantly recognizable due to its rectangular clock with four black dials (one on each side of the tower), and whose shining hands mark the exact time and are an urban signal in the city.^




(2014)*^ – Close-up detail view of both clock and tower of the Clock Tower Building, 225 Santa Monica Blvd.  


Historical Notes

Due to its height, its imposing volumes and the immediate recognizability of its architecture, the Clock Tower Building has possessed a powerful urban identity since it was built. This makes it a true landmark that acts as a compass and guide in the boundless Santa Monica cityscape.^


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Georgian Hotel

(1941)#^ – View showing the rustic driveway leading to what appears to be the rear of the Georgian Hotel located at 1415 Ocean Avenue in Santa Monica.  




(ca. 1940s)^^ – Painting showing the Georgian Hotel in Santa Monica by Todd Garner.  


Historical Notes

Built in 1931, the Art Deco eight story Georgian Hotel was one of the first high rise hotels in Santa Monica. It sits on Ocean Avenue and looks out on the Pacific Ocean. The bar downstairs was frequented by Hollywood luminaries such as Clark Gable and Carole Lombard. The Georgian was also home base for the Kennedy clan with First Mother Rose Kennedy a fixture at the hotel while she entertained Hollywood royalty and journalists.^




(2001)* – View looking up at the front of the Georgian Hotel, 1415 Ocean Avenue, Santa Monica.  


Historical Notes

The Georgian Hotel was established in 1931. Built during the peak of California's coastal expansion in the 1920s and 1930s, the historic hotel was the vision of Attorney and Judge, Harry J. Borde. Showcasing Romanesque Revival and Art Deco architecture, the hotel was among the first skyscrapers to call Ocean Avenue home.^




(2001)* – Closer view of the Art Deco eight story apartment hotel designed by architect M. Eugene Durfee.  


Historical Notes

As Hollywood's elite flocked to the beach to escape the valley heat, The Georgian's popularity grew. It was nicknamed "The Lady" in honor of Mr. Borde's mother, Rosamond Borde, who was a modern woman who had opened a hotel called The Windermere on the adjacent lot.




(2001)* - The Georgian Hotel, 1415 Ocean Avenue, Santa Monica, Calif.  


Historical Notes

As time passed, the basement restaurant of the Georgian Hotel earned a great deal of attention. One of the last strongholds of the Prohibition Era, it was considered a true Speakeasy, which hosted the likes of "Bugsy" Siegel, Clark Gable, Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle, Carole Lombard, and dozens of other film stars and industry moguls.




(2018)^.^ – Front view of The Georgian Hotel and its outdoor Veranda Restaurant seating.  


Historical Notes

In the 1940s and 1950s, Santa Monica was taken by a technological and industrial boom, led by the Donald Douglas Aircraft Factory. Guests of Douglas Aircraft's would call The Georgian their temporary home while in LA. Those taking up residence included aircraft designers, servicemen during WWII, and gamblers who would take a motorboat offshore to spend an evening aboard the casino barges anchored a few miles offshore in Santa Monica Bay.

In the late 1960s, The Georgian reinvented itself as a modern upscale apartment residence, with unheard of amenities like a bathroom in every guest room.




(2016)^.^ - Looking up at the beautiful Georgian Hotel, 1415 Ocean Avenue, Santa Monica.  


Historical Notes

The Georgian Hotel was designated a Santa Monica historical landmark on February 22, 1995.*


* * * * *



Santa Monica Beach Clubs

(ca. 1926)** - Birdseye view of Roosevelt Highway (later Pacific Coast Highway) in Santa Monica from Palisades Park.  The steep cliffs of Palisades Park are visible at right, and a wooden fence can be seen running along the top edge. Below, a long line of buildings, including a bath house and the Gables Beach Club can be seen on the left side of Pacific Coast Highway. At the base of the Palisades (center-right) can be seen the foundations for the new Gables Hotel.  


Historical Notes

IIn the 1920s and 30s, a number of fancy beach clubs were built along Santa Monica beach including the aptly named Santa Monica Athletic Club, the Beach Club, the Santa Monica Swimming Club, the Deauville, the Wavecrest, the Edgewater, and the Breakers. There was also the Gables Beach Club, a grand Tudor-style building (seen above) constructed in 1926. ##^^




(ca. 1927)^x^ – Panoramic postcard view looking north toward Malibu showing several beach clubs as seen from Palisades Park.  The Jonathan Club, opened in 1927, is on the lower left. Next to it is the Gables Beach Club, which burned in a fire in 1930, only to reopen with a new building. Across the Roosevelt Highway is the unfinished Gables Hotel, later known as the Sorrento Ruins.  





(ca. 1927)^.^ – View showing the Gables Hotel on the Palisades in Santa Monica.  The hotel was never finished due to the Great Depression and eventually became known as the  Sorrento Ruins.  




Gables Beach Club and Hotel

(ca. 1926)^x^ – Postcard view showing an illustration of the proposed Gables Beach Club and Hotel. The hotel was never completely built.   


Historical Notes

The Gables Beach Club, seen on the beach in the foreground, was completed in 1926 and flourished until it burned in a fire in 1930. It reopened a few years later as the Sorrento Beach Club.

The towering Gables Hotel across the Roosevelt Highway began construction in 1926 just north of the California Incline, but only got as far as the third story when the project was killed by the Great Depression. The hotel was never completed and later became known as the Sorrento Ruins. ^x^




(ca. 1926)** -  View of the Santa Monica beach from the palisades, showing the Gables Beach Club. A short pier or breakwater extends into the sea at center, and another can be seen in the distance at right.  


Historical Notes

The grand Tudor-style Gables Beach Club was  constructed in 1926. It was a popular filming location. After a fire partially destroyed it in 1930, the club was rebuilt and reopened as the Sorrento Beach Club in 1932. ##^^



(1920s)* - View showing Jack Dempsey boxing for a fund raiser in a ring outside the Gables Beach Club.  


Historical Notes

William Harrison "Jack" Dempsey became a cultural icon of the 1920s.  He held the World Heavyweight Championship from 1919 to 1926, and his aggressive style and exceptional punching power made him one of the most popular boxers in history. Many of his fights set financial and attendance records, including the first million-dollar gate.*^




(1927)** - View looking north along Coast Highway from point just north of Colorado Street, Santa Monica. Also visible are: lumber and other construction supplies, workmen, pedestrians, railroad tracks, embankment at the top of which are palm trees, utility poles and lines, buildings (businesses mostly), a few parked automobiles. Legible signs include: "Auto Park", "Santa Monica Athletic Club", "Parking 25¢".  





(1927)** - View looking south along Coast Highway from point just north of Colorado Street, Santa Monica, showing entrance to the Pacific Electric Railway tunnel under Ocean Avenue.  Also visible are: lumber and other construction supplies, generator, parked automobiles, embankment, utility poles and lines, stairs up to Ocean Avenue, businesses, a few palm trees along Ocean Avenue. Legible signs include: "Lunch..., "Pier auto park", "Santa Monica Bath House".  To the right (out of view) is the Deauville Club, which is still under construction.  




Deauville Club

(1927)** – View of beachgoers and the under-construction Deauville Club on the beach in Santa Monica.  The large building is at right and is mostly complete except for the wall facing the beach. There is scaffolding around one of the two large towers on the corners of the buildings. The beach in front of the club is crowded with bathers playing in the sand and the surf. Further down the beach at center are other beach clubs, including the Santa Monica Athletic Club.  


Historical Notes

The Deauville Club was located north of the Santa Monica Pier. It opened to the public in 1927 and was built on the site of the old North Beach House. It was modeled after a casino in Deauville, France, and considered to be one of the most beautiful beach clubs.*^*^




(ca. 1927)** – View of the beach in Santa Monica in front of the Deauville Beach Club. The wide sandy beach is at center and is crowded with bathers and their umbrellas. A pair of bicycles is leaning against a post at center. The beach is bordered at right by several large buildings, including the Deauville club in the foreground and the Santa Monica Athletic Club further in the distance.  





(ca. 1930)** -  View of Santa Monica Beach and Pier showing people standing at the rail of the wood-planked pier in the foreground as they look at the beach at center. People in bathing suits with umbrellas over them flood the sandy beach into the distance. The Santa Monica Athletic Club and part of the Deauville Club are in view at upper right.  





(1934)** - View of the Santa Monica Pier showing a jammed-packed parking lot in the foreground. Hundreds of beachgoers can be seen under umbrellas and in the water. In the background the pier can be seen, with several structures on it. The most notable building on the pier is the La Monica Ballroom with minarets topping each of its many towers. At upper left can be seen part of the castle-style Deauville Club.  





(1936)^#^ - A summer day at Santa Monica beach in front of the Deauville Beach Club. In the background, behind Palisades Park, can be seen the Georgian Hotel and thet Bay Cities Guaranty Building with its clock tower.  





(1934)#^^ - View showing a crowd watching a beauty contest at the Deauville Club, with contestants lined up to walk on stage and a contestant modeling a bathing suit next to a musical band. The Georgian Hotel (built in 1933) is seen behind Palisades Park at upper right edge of image.  





(1932)^ - Image of contestants walking on elevated planks in bathing suits for a beauty contest at the Deauville Club in Santa Monica.  





(1930s)* – Three couples posing for the camera by their longboards at Santa Monica Beach with the Deauville Club in the background.  





(ca. 1930s)**^ - Street side view of the castle-style Deauville Club located at the junction of the Roosevelt Highway and Olympic Blvd.  


Historical Notes

In 1930, the Los Angeles Athletic Club bought the Deauville Club and, in 1933, a breakwater built in the bay expanded the sandy beaches, creating more oceanfront space for the multitude of visitors to the area.^^#




(ca. 1930s)^^ - Interior view of the Deauville Club's lounge area with views of the surf.  


Historical Notes

The Deauville offered guest rooms, a gymnasium, a saltwater plunge, lockers and showers, lounge rooms, game rooms, private dining rooms, and a restaurant.^^#




(1930s)^^ - Interior view of the large, ornate dining hall at the Deauville Club. Chandeliers are seen hanging down from the high ceiling exposed beams.  





(1937)* - Close-up view of the Deauville Club as seen from the beach.  





(1938)#^^ – View showing an electric dredge in a pool of water in front of the Deauville Club. To the right of the Deauville Club and behind the dredge can be seen the west end of the McClure Tunnel.  





(1930s)#^^ - Image of spectators on the beach watching a fencing match in front of the Deauville Club in Santa Monica, with the Looff Hippodrome seen at right on the Santa Monica Pier.   





(1940s)#^^ - View looking north showing Palisades Beach Road (part of the Roosevelt Highway and later Pacific Coast Highway), with the Deauville Club (with tower), Santa Monica Athletic Club, and Wavecrest Club, at left, and Palisades Park and bluffs at right.  





(1945)* - Jewish Community Center founders and guests gather for a dinner at the Deauville Club. The attached newspaper article states: "Halfway at the outset was the quota status of the subscription pledges announced for the proposed new Santa Monica Jewish Community Center Building when the Jewish leaders...and 245 others gathered for a dinner program at the Deauville Club." The word "aloha" is visible in the back of the room.  






(ca. 1955)^x^ – View looking at the Deauville Beach Club near the end of its life.  






(ca. 1950)^ - The Deauville Club located just north of the Santa Monica Pier, opened in 1927 on the former site of the North Beach Bath House. Its design was inspired by a castle styled casino in Deauville, France.  


Historical Notes

The club hosted bands, beauty contestants, dances, high school proms and banquets. It had several owners over the course of its nearly 40 year life. It was ultimately demolished in the mid-1960s following a devastating fire on April 5th, 1964.




Santa Monica Yacht Harbor and Pier

(1937)^#^ - Aerial photo of the Santa Monica Pier shoreline looking northwest. The Deauville Club sits to the north of the pier. The Casa del Mar Club is the first building located in the lower right corner. Photo by Spencer Air Service  


Historical Notes

A breakwater was built just off the Santa Monica Pier in 1933, creating a harbor for boat anchorage. Upon completion it stood 37-feet high and more than 100-feet wide at its base. It had the added effect of redistributing sand along the shore, creating the wide swath of beach north of the pier.*^*^

The harbor was home to a collection of yachts, fishing boats and a cruise liner to Catalina. It was also the home base for a shuttle service to offshore gambling operations run by mobster Tony Cornero until 1939 when then-Attorney General Earl Warren led a legal crusade to shut them down.

The last to go was Cornero’s flagship, the “Rex”, which was raided in 1939 during what came to be known as “The Battle of Santa Monica Bay”. After a three day standoff, Cornero surrendered because he “needed a haircut”. Government agents boarded the “Rex” and threw all of the gambling machines and tables overboard. Warren subsequently went on to become governor of California, and ultimately Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.^++




(1942)* – Low tide in Santa Monica just north of the pier with the Palisades and California Incline seen in the distance. What appears to be a dredge sits in pool of water surrounded by sand.  





(1940s)^x^ - Postcard view showing the Santa Monica Pier and Harbor.  The Spanish and French Renaissance style La Monica Ballroom stands out.  Also, an aircraft carrier can be seen off in the distance. Frasher's Fotos.  




(1939)** - Gambling boat, Rex resists boarding from California Fish and Game Commision boat, Bonita, off Santa Monica. LA Daily News Speciall Collections  


Historical Notes

In the 1930s, gambling entrepreneurs such as Tony Cornero discovered that ships docked more than three miles from shore fell outside Santa Monica's legal jurisdiction. Old ships were retrofitted as floating casinos serviced by water taxis from the Pier. One of the most famous was the "Rex," a gambling ship anchored in Santa Monica Bay in 1938.

California Attorney General Earl Warren mounted both a lengthy legal campaign to shut down the gambling ships as well as a series of sieges on the Rex, dubbed "The Battle of Santa Monica Bay" by the press. When the police raided the Rex on August 1 1939, they dumped slot machines into the ocean and burned the gambling tables from the ship.^




(ca. 1935)#^^ - View of the Santa Monica Yacht Harbor looking back to Santa Monica beach, with the California Incline seen at left, the two-story Wavecrest Club at center and the edge of the Santa Monica Athletic Club at right.  





(1930s)* - Image of a lifeguard, man in a tuxedo, woman in an evening dress, man in a sailor suit, and others in swimsuits  standing on the deck of a sailboat in the ocean, with the Santa Monica Athletic Club, the Georgian Hotel, the Crocker Bank Building, and the bluffs below Palisades Park in the distance.  





(ca. 1935)#^^ - View showing the Santa Monica Yacht harbor with boats in the water and people standing at the end of the Santa Monica Pier looking toward the beach.  The Deauville Club (at right with towers), Santa Monica Athletic Club (center) and Wavecrest Club (at far left) are visible on the beach and the Bay Cities Guaranty Building (also known as the Clock Tower Building or Crocker Bank Building) is visible beyond the Palisades bluffs and Palisades Park.  





(ca. 1934)#^^ - Image of a beach crowded with people, small boats, and beach umbrellas just north of the Santa Monica Pier.  The Deauville Club (on the beach with towers) is in front of the bluffs of Palisades Park with a sign for "Yachtsmen" and a sign advertising "Sea Food Grotto, fish dinners, clam chowder and cocktails" is seen on a restaurant situated at the edge of the pier at right.  





(1937)* -  Fishermen are angling from the pier with the La Monica Ballroom seen on the right.  


Historical Notes

The Spanish and French Renaissance style La Monica Ballroom was designed by T.H. Eslick; it opened on July 23, 1924 and was demolished in 1963.



Santa Monica Pier (1939-1958)

(ca. 1939)* – View showing a crowded Santa Monica Pier with the Looff Hippodrome seen in the upper-left and the La Monica Ballroom in the distance.  





(ca. 1940s)** - View looking toward the shoreline from the Santa Monica Pier showing cars parked and people walking.  The Deauville Club can be seen in the distance.  





(1950s)* – Driving on the Santa Monica Pier. Large sign on the right reads: 'Santa Monica Sea Food Co. - Wholesale and Retail'  





(1958)* - Looking down the access ramp to the Santa Monica Pier with the Merry-Go-Round in the left foreground.  






(1940s)^v^ - Postcard view looking northwest showing the Colorado Avenue access ramp to the Santa Monica Municipal Pier. The overpass was opened in 1940.  


Historical Notes

The bridge and entry gate to Santa Monica Pier were built in 1938 by the federal Works Project Administration, and replaced the former grade connection.



Santa Monica Pier Sign

(ca. 1940)#^^ - Image of a line of people waving while standing under a neon sign for the Santa Monica Pier. The sign reads "Santa Monica Yacht Harbor Sport Fishing and Boating Cafes."  


Historical Notes

In 1940 the famous neon sign at the top of the Pier ramp was installed by the Santa Monica Pier Businessmen’s Association to celebrate the opening of the newly-built ramp. It is an internationally-recognized tourist destination and a symbol of the Southern California lifestyle.^++




(2008)* - Santa Monica Pier neon sign.  





(n.d.)#^ - Nigth view of the Santa Monica Pier neon sign (installed in 1940).  



* * * * *





(1930s)* - Members of one of the private clubs at a beach party; in the background is the Santa Monica Pier.  





(1938)* - Sunbathers, beach volleyball players, and umbrellas crowd the beach before a line of private beach clubs interrupts their spread. A sign on the first wall, center, reads "Waverly Club, private beach, members only". The eight story building formerly was Breakers Beach Club, 1725 Promenade in Santa Monica. The next six story building is the Jonathan Club, formerly the Edgewater Beach Club, 1855 Promenade.  


Historical Notes

The Breakers Beach Club opened in 1926. The 8-story building had over 300 sleeping apartments and a full complement of amenities for guests. As ownership changed, it was also known as Club Lido. Eventually the club transitioned into a hotel, used to house military personnel during World War II. Later it was also known as the Chase Hotel.

The structure became an apartment building known as the Sea Castle Apartments in the 1960s. The building was completely destroyed by fire in 1996.*^*^




(1939)* - Miles of public beach serve millions of recreation-seekers along the Pacific shores of Los Angeles County. This scene is between Ocean Park and Venice on June 26, 1939.  





(n.d.)*#* - Crowded day at Ocean Park beach in Santa Monica.  





(1939)* - Not a parking space to be had. Another busy day at the beach in Santa Monica.  





(1945)* – Santa Monica Beach…’This is how we Winter’.  




Santa Monica Lifeguard Service

(1934)^ – Lifeguards march in line in front of Santa Monica Pier.  


Historical Notes

The Santa Monica Lifeguard Service was founded in the 1920’s under Captain George Watkins.  In 1934, it established a home on the Santa Monica Pier in the former Bowling and Billiards Building.  A year later they moved to the La Monica Ballroom and, while there, operated an aquarium.*




(1935)* - Santa Monica Lifeguards line up at the edge of Santa Monica Pier.     


Historical Notes

In the early years of the lifeguard service, it attracted a following of Hollywood heavyweights and swimming champions. Duke Kahanamoku of Hawaii brought surfing to Santa Monica. Johnny Weismuller was made an honorary lifeguard, since so many of the team would stunt double for him in the Tarzan films. Gary Cooper was a fan, along with Marion Davies, Darryl Zanuck and Cary Grant, who kept houses by the beach.

The lifeguard service expanded along with the explosion of coastal real estate development in the early part of the 20th century. Abbot Kinney hired lifeguards to patrol the beach to help sell his beachfront properties. Kinney’s wife was responsible for raising funds to purchase the first lifeguard boat in Venice and organized lifeguards into a crew.

Back then, lifeguards would carry long metal cans – or rescue tubes (invented by a Santa Monica lifeguard) on rescues. Today, the tubes are made of plastic polymers, but the essentials of the job remain unchanged – vigilant eyes on the surf, anticipating problems and steering crowds away from dangerous behaviors, like drinking.^

In the mid-1930s the Santa Monica Lifeguard Headquarters was located in the La Monica Ballroom Building located on the pier.  In the late 1950s a New Headquarters Building would be built at 1642 Ocean Front Walk, which is still in use today.



Muscle Beach

(1948)* - View of the original Muscle Beach, located south of the Santa Monica pier, at a long, wooden platform constructed by the Works Progress Administration.  


Historical Notes

Muscle Beach is where the body was celebrated in its sunbaked glory as young men (and more than a few women) showed off their physical prowess by performing acrobatic and gymnastic routines. The original Muscle Beach disappeared in the late 1950s; the modern-day version is now located in Venice Beach.*




(1948)^*^* - Mr. Muscles contestant performing acrobatic move as crowd watches at Muscle Beach in Santa Monica.  


Historical Notes

Beginning in 1934, the fantastic gymnastics shows held here made the site a major attraction and center of the international fitness movement led by Jack LaLanne, Steve Reeves and Joe Gold.




(ca. 1949)* - Muscle Beach with exercise professional Jack Lalanne in the middle, white shorts.  


Historical Notes

In the 1930s, the Works Progress Administration, in one of its many economy-stimulating public works projects, installed sets of exercise equipment on the beach just south of the Santa Monica Pier in Santa Monica, California.

The weight benches, parallel bars and gymnastics rings soon became a magnet for athletes, acrobats and famous bodybuilders such as Jack LaLanne.^




(1951)* - Two thousand people watch acrobatics during a program at which Downey dairyman Ken Cameron, 23, was chosen "Mr. Muscle Beach of 1951." He won over 15 others in the contest sponsored by the Santa Monica Recreation Department on July 4, 1951.  


Historical Notes

Acrobats, gymnasts and bodybuilders performed before large crowds, which often included Jayne Mansfield and Mae West. Santa Monica's Muscle Beach reached the height of its popularity in the 1940s before moving to its current location in Venice Beach in 1959.*^*^




(1949)#*#* – View showing a very crowded Muscle Beach.  Jumbo Malts - 25 Cents, Snow Cones - 10 Cents - Photo by Max Yavno  


Historical Notes

The 1940 opening of the first of an eventual nationwide chain of weightlifting gyms by famed pioneer gym chain operator, Vic Tanny, only two city blocks from Muscle Beach in Santa Monica is commonly considered a key contributor to the increasing attraction of bodybuilders and strength lifters to Muscle Beach from across the nation. By the 1950s Muscle Beach established worldwide fame and helped to popularize and bring legitimacy to physical culture with acrobatics and bodybuilding and contribute to a nationwide health and fitness movement continuing into the 21st century.*^




(1949)^ – Muscle Beach, Santa Monica.  It would later (1959) be relocated to Venice Beach.  


Historical Notes

Male and female gymnasts regularly put on public shows, dazzling beachgoers with their displays of strength and balance.




(1949)* - Working out at muscle beach.  


Historical Notes

The weightlifting equipment was eventually removed and relocated, drawing the bodybuilding crowd to a different Muscle Beach slightly down the coast in Venice, but the original retains an array of gymnastics equipment for daring tumblers.




(1950)* - Muscle Beach in Santa Monica with the Purser Apartments in upper-right background.  





(1951)** - Miss Muscle Beach contest with the Purser Apartments in the background.  





(1954)**^ - View showing a not so crowded Muscle Beach. The original Muscle Beach disappeared in the late 1950s; the modern-day version is now located in Venice Beach.  





View From the Top

(1943)* – Actress Susan Peters Looking down at Santa Monica beach from the palisades.  





(1949)**^ - View of the beach in Santa Monica on a summer day.  





(1940s)+## - Closer view showing sunbathers enjoying a day at Santa Monica Beach, with the California Incline and Palisades Park in the background.  





(1940)##*^ – Goodyear blimp, ‘Resolute’, lands on the sand at Santa Monica Beach.  The California Incline and Cities Guaranty Clock Tower Building (Crocker Bank Building) can be seen in the background.  


Historical Notes

That building with the arched windows to the left of the blimp, was the old armory building that became an officers club during WWII and for a time after. By the late 50s, Synanon took it over. That was 'the Synanon house on the beach,' throughout the 60s, prior to their moving into Casa del Mar.




(1940s)* - View overlooking Pacific Coast Highway. Palisades Park can be seen above the cliffs on the left. The Santa Monica beach is on the right, and La Monica's ballroom on the pier is in the distance. Pedestrian bridge over the highway is seen in the center of photo.  


Historical Notes

When the Pacific Coast Highway was built in 1927, new concrete steps and a bridge over the highway were built to replace the wooden ones which allowed for continued beach access. In 1935, the bridge shown above replaced the one built in 1927.*^*^




(1997)* - Looking over the Pacific Coast Highway from Santa Monica Bluffs, with the Jonathan Club, the pier, and Palos Verdes Peninsula visible in the upper left. A continuous stream of cars can be seen as they travel along PCH below the pedestrian bridge; in contrast, the parking lot on the right is completely empty.  


Historical Notes

Today, Santa Monica has 4 pedestrian bridges that cross PCH with stairs that take you down to the beaches.^***




(1952)** - View showing a life guard jeep and rescue boat at Santa Monica Beach.  Caption reads:   “Rescue jeep's newest radio equipment to talk to (1) radio equipped lifeguard power rescue boat on emergency call and (2) lifeguard headquarters station (extreme right end of pier). Santa Monica is the only guard station on the coast with its own frequency, assigned by the Federal Communication Commission".   




Santa Monica Lifeguard Headquarters

(1959)^ - Santa Monica Lifeguard Headquarters off Pacific Coast Hwy.   The building was designed by Welton Becket and Associates.  


Historical Notes

The lifeguard facility was originally constructed in the late 1950’s and has been staffed by Los Angeles County since the 1970’s. The County Fire Department provides year-round lifeguard coverage for the beach seven days a week, as well as round the clock emergency response and paramedic support.*




(2018)^ - Santa Monica Lifeguard Headquarters at 1642 Ocean Front Walk with Santa Monica Pier seen in the background.  


Historical Notes

The Los Angeles County Fire Department Lifeguard Division is the largest professional lifeguard service in the world. In 2018, the Los Angeles County Lifeguard Service employed 177 year-round lifeguards (chiefs, captains and ocean lifeguard specialists) and over 650 seasonal lifeguards (recurrents). Operating out of four Sectional Headquarters, located in Hermosa, Santa Monica, Marina Del Rey and Zuma beach. Each of these headquarters staffs a 24-hour response unit, and are part of the 911 system.

In addition to providing marine firefighting, LA County Lifeguards have specialized training for fire boat operations.

Prior to July 1, 1994, Los Angeles County Lifeguards were part of the Department of Beaches and Harbors.*^


* * * * *




(1950)* - Surfing California. Surfing is more than a sport....it's a way of life!  


Historical Notes

“Out of water, I am nothing.” — Duke Kahanamoku

“Surfing’s one of the few sports where you look ahead to see what’s behind.” — Laird Hamilton

“One of the greatest things about the sport of surfing is that you need only three things: your body, a surfboard, and a wave.” — Naima Green




(1964)^ - Still image from the Frankie and Annette beach movie "Muscle Beach Party" from 1964. The Jalopy caravan moves down the Pacific Coast Highway in Pacific Palisades with the Sunset Mesa development in the background.  


Historical Notes

Muscle Beach Party (1964) is the second of seven beach party films produced by American International Pictures. It stars Frankie Avalon and Annette Funicello and was directed by William Asher, who also directed four other films in this series.*^




(1968)* - View of a young surfer riding a wave in Santa Monica.  




Hot Dog on a Stick

(1960)* - The original Hot Dog On A Stick located at the end of the Santa Monica Pier.  


Historical Notes

In 1946, Dave Barham opened the original food stand just to the south of the Santa Monica Pier. Originally called Party Puffs, the bright red barnlike stand served ice cream cones and lemonade but that all changed when, using his mom’s cornbread recipe, Barham perfected the corndog. To highlight this new menu staple, he changed the name of his stand to Hot Dog on a Stick. Next, he took his products on the road and started selling at county fairs using his Lincoln Continental as a generator. After that, Hot Dog on a Stick took to the malls. Now Hot Dog on a Stick has 70 stores in 7 states.*




(1964)* – Enjoying a lemonade and hot dog on a stick in Santa Monica. The bikini was quite racy for that time.  





(1964)* - A little acrobatics after eating at Hot Dog on a Stick.  





(1972)^.^ = LA Times photo caption reads:  “Spectators gather to observe two topless ladies allegedly testing Santa Monica's nudity law. There were reportedly no arrests.”  





(1977)* - The parking lot at the beach in Santa Monica has only a few empty spots. People are strolling or sunbathing or playing beach volleyball as sailboats pass by.  





(1976)##^* – Wilshire Boulevard to Santa Monica Beach.  


Historical Notes

Wilshire Boulvard runs 15.83 miles from Grand Avenue in Downtown Los Angeles to Ocean Avenue in the City of Santa Monica.*^




(1950s)+## - View showing a palm tree-lined Ocean Avenue with the Palos Verdes Peninsula in the distance.  


Historical Notes

Ocean Avenue is a road in Santa Monica that starts at the residential Adelaide Drive on the north end of Santa Monica and ends at Pico Boulevard. Ocean Avenue is the westernmost street in Santa Monica, and for most of its course it runs parallel to Palisades Park, whose bluffs overlook Pacific Coast Highway and Santa Monica State Beach.*^




(1960s)^v^ – Postcard view from Palisades Park near Inspiration Point of the Pacific Coast Highway stretching northward along the beach. The building seen through the palm trees is the 101 Ocean Avenue condo complex.  


Historical Notes

Built in 1963, the 101 Ocean Ave condo complex is made up of 59 units in a 10-story building.




Third Street (now Third Street Promenade)

(1933)#^^ – Postcard view looking south on Third Street from Arizona Avenue showing streetlights, automobiles, pedestrians and storefronts. The Bay Cities Guaranty Clock Tower Building (Crocker Bank Building) is seen at right and the Criterion Theatre is seen at left advertising "The White Sister" with Helen Hayes. Signs on the street read "Criterion Drug Co." "Criterion Apartments" "Avon Hotel" "Sponberg's Department Store" "Montgomery Ward & Co" and "J.C. Penny Co."  


Historical Notes

The Criterion Theatre was built in 1924 and was part of the Fox West Coast Thetres ciruit. In 1983, the theatre was rebuilt to make way for a new 6-plex.***




(1940)* – Looking down Third Street, showing A&P Supermarket, Bay Cities Guaranty Building and Europa Company Department Store.  





(ca. 1950)##^* – View looking south down Third Street showing the Fox Criterion Theatre on the left, located at 1315 Third Street.  





(2008)#*^# - Google street view of the Third Street Promenade showing the Criterion Theatre on the left.  


Historical Notes

Mann Theatres took over the Criterion in 1991 and in 2001, remodeled the interior and exterior of the theater. The architectural firm Behr Browers Architects of Westlake CA were responsible for the remodel. It was one of the most successful theaters in the circuit.

The Criterion Theatre was closed on March 30, 2013 to make room for more retail stores.***




Before and After

(ca. 1950)##^* – View looking south down Third Street with the Fox Criterion Theatre on the left.   (2008)#*^# - View of the Third Street Promenade with the Criterion Theatre on the left.






(ca. 1955)*** – View looking north on Third Street in Santa Monica (now the Third Street Promenade). On the right legible signs include:  Santa Monica Colony Club, California Bank, Richmond’s, and in the distance, the Criterion Theatre.  


Historical Notes

Third Street Promenade has been a center of business in Santa Monica since the town's inception in the late 19th century. The Promenade's roots date back to the 1960s when three blocks of Third Street were converted into a pedestrian mall.*^




(1965)* - View showing the Third Street Promenade under construction.  


Historical Notes

“A 'pedestrians' paradise' is in the making in this Santa Monica Street. A three-block-long mall, free of vehicular traffic, is under construction in this area”. -  Herald Examiner - July 27, 1965.*




(1965)^.^ - The 3rd Street Promenade in Santa Monica, when it first opened as a pedestrian-only street. The El Miro Theatre is seen on the right.  


Historical Notes

It wasn’t called the 3rd Street Promenade until they revamped it in the late 80s. Before that it was called The Santa Monica Mall.





(1880)* - View of Third Street, between Utah and Oregon (now Santa Monica Boulevard).   (ca. 2010s)* - View of the Third Street Promenade.






(2010s vs. 1920s)^.^ - Then and Now - Third and Broadway, Santa Monica .  






(ca. 2010s)* - Third Street Promenade in Santa Monica. A Bar and Grill can be seen on the left side. Two fountains with art sculptures are in the middle of the mall. A Cineplex theater and a Broadway's Deli is on the right side. Three vendors with push carts can be seen towards the middle of the mall, with many people walking throughout the area. The Santa Monica beach is 3-4 blocks away.   


Historical Notes

Third Street Promenade's roots date back to the 1960s when three blocks of Third Street were converted into a pedestrian mall. Although successful, by the late 1970s, the Santa Monica Mall (as it was then called), was in need of modernization and a redesign. A new enclosed shopping center, Santa Monica Place (1980–2007), designed by Frank Gehry was added at the Promenade's southern end. A citywide bond measure was issued and architectural firm ROMA Design Group was hired to redesign Santa Monica Mall. The renamed Third Street Promenade opened on September 16, 1989. The project was part of a larger redevelopment effort, encompassing several blocks of Downtown Santa Monica. Santa Monica Place has since been renovated into a new open-air shopping and dining experience that re-opened on August 6, 2010.*^




Route 66 - End of the Trail

(2013)*^^* - The Route 66 End of the Trail sign is one of Santa Monica’s hidden gems, located on one end of the Santa Monica Pier.  


Historical Notes

Known as the Will Rogers Highway, the Mother Road and the Main Street of America, the 2,450-mile-long Route 66 was originally built to connect Chicago to Los Angeles. Though the actual end of the legendary highway has been debated for decades, this replica of the long-lost End of the Trail Sign officially marks the Western terminus of the great highway.*^^*




(2014)#*^^ - Route 66 - End of the Trail sign at the Santa Monica Pier with Ferris wheel in the background.  





(2013)* - The sign of US 66's western terminus at the Santa Monica Pier. Photo by Christian Beiwinkel  




Santa Monica Pier

(ca. 1972)* - A near empty Santa Monica Pier, looking towards the Holiday Inn.  


Historical Notes

Bands use to stay at that Holiday Inn when they played the Santa Monica Civic. Warhol used to throw parties in the merry go round and there used to be apts. above the carousel. Joan Baez was once a tenant. You can see those apartments in THE STING.




(1979)* - PIER PRESSURE--A summery weekend brought throngs of people to the shops, restaurants and beach along the Santa Monica Pier.  





(1988)* - Santa Monica Pier looking north on the first day of Spring. Photograph dated: March 21, 1988.  





(1985)* - Crowds on the beach north of the Santa Monica Pier.  




(2008)*^ - View of Santa Monica Beach from the pier on a crowded day. In the distance can be seen the California Incline and some of the City's skyline.  





(2009)*^ - Panoramic view of the Santa Monica Pier as seen from an altitude of 2,000', looking south. Several rides of the pier’s amusement park, Pacific Park, can be seen including the large Ferris wheel.  






(2009)*^ - Panoramic view of the beach and pier in Santa Monica. The City's skyline can be seen in the background.  






(n.d.)++# - Sillhouette view of Santa Monica Pier.  





(2012)## – Close-up view of the Ferris wheel at Santa Monica Pier.  Photo by Carol M. Highsmith.  





Then and Now

(1927 vs Now)* - Santa Monica Pier  





California Incline

(ca. 1987)* - Cars travel in both directions along Ocean Avenue where it crosses California Avenue in Santa Monica. California Avenue leads to the California Incline, also known as the California Avenue Incline Bridge (foreground, left), connecting Ocean Avenue to the Pacific Coast Highway.  Sign at left reads:  California Incline, Vehicles in Excess of 6,000 lbs. Prohibited.  


Historical Notes

The California Incline was identified as structurally deficient in the early 1990s.  In 2007, the City of Santa Monica secured federal highway funds to replace the structure with one meeting current seismic standards.




(2011)* - View of the California Incline as seen from the Santa Monica Pier. LA Times Photo Archives  


Historical Notes

The California Incline was rebuilt between 2015 and 2016.  The new bridge consists of a pile-supported reinforced concrete slab structure with a width of 51 feet 8 inches, an increase of 5 feet 8 inches over the previous structure. The project cost $17 million, with 88.5% coming from federal funds and the balance from local funds. Construction began in April 2015 and took 17 months to complete. The roadway reopened to the public on September 1, 2016. The rebuilt structure includes wider sidewalks and bicycle lanes. *^

Click HERE to see early views of the California Incline (1905 +).




Palisades Park

(2012)**^ - View of one of two very large cannons located at Palisades Park. Three people are seen by the rail at the bluff's edge looking out toward Santa Monica Pier and Beach.  


Historical Notes

A pair of Civil War seacoast cannons dating from 1861 were given to the City of Santa Monica on July 4, 1908, by the U.S Veteran’s Administration. Originally, each of the mounted guns had a pyramidal stack of iron cannonballs beside it, which are now gone. One cannon is located north of Colorado Boulevard near the entrance to the Santa Monica Pier. The other cannon, is located north of the Recreation center. They are ten-inch Rodman smoothbore seacoast guns. Each of the cannons is twelve-feet long and weighs about sixteen tons. They came to Palisades Park from Angel Island.

Santa Monica was never defended with cannons during times of war, although it is said that during the Spanish-American War, the city engineer mounted lengths of large pipes along the bluff to give the impression that the city was heavily fortified.#^#^




(n.d.)* - Tall palm trees line the walking path in Palisades Park. The Santa Monica beach can be seen in the background.  


Historical Notes

In recognition of its value as a historic resource and cultural landscape, Palisades Park was designated as a Santa Monica landmark in 2007.




(2023)* - Looking down from the top of Palisades Park. Photo by Paul Wright  






(n.d.)^^* - Panoramic view showing stairs and bridge connecting Palisades Park with the Santa Monica Beach.  






(2019)^.^ -  A pedestrian bridge spans Highway 1 from Palisades Park to the beach with Santa Monica Pier seen in the distance.  






(1988)* - Two bike riders take advantage of springtime in January while they take in the sights along the sunny, wind-swept beach path between Santa Monica and Venice Beach. Photograph dated: Jan. 26, 1988.  






(1986)* - A large colony of seagulls fills the sky over on a beach in Santa Monica, where a woman is seen jogging near the water.  






(n.d.)* - Sunset over the Pacific Ocean as seen at Santa Monica Beach.  






(2019)^.^ – Sunset view of Santa Monica Beach and Pier.  Photo by Larry L. Abellera  






(n.d.)*^^^ - The iconic Santa Monica Pier at sunset.  





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* * * * *


References and Credits

* LA Public Library Image Archive

^ LADWP Historic Archive

**USC Digital Library

^^The California History Room, California State Library

^*LMU Digital Collection: Arcadia Hotel

#* LA Times: Marquez Family

#^ Santa Monica Public Library Image Archive

+# Santa Monica Mirror: Statue of Santa Monica

+^ Santa Monica Landmarks: Looff Hippodrome

## Library of Congress: Santa Monica Bay ca. 1908; Ferris Wheel

***Cinema Treasures: El Miro Theatre; Criterion Theatre and Thrid Street; Criterion Theatre

+++Vanderbilt Cup Races

^x^Facebook.com: Venice, Ca, Ocean Park, & Santa Monica in the 20th Century

^v^Pepperdine Digital Archive

**^Noirish Los Angeles - forum.skyscraperpage.com; Deauville Club; Palisades Park Cannon; Muscle Beach

^^*Deviantart-Studio5: Santa Monica Beach

^^#University of California Digital Library: The Deauville Club

^^+Stanford University Revs Digital Library

*^#Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles: losangelespast.com

*#*KCET: A Historical Look at SoCal's Beaches

*#^Santa Monica Public Library

^#*Santa Monica History Museum

^#^Framework.latimes.com: Santa Monica Beach, 1936; Santa Monica Aerial, 1937; McClure Tunnel

^##The Malibu Times: Historic Las Flores Canyon

+##Facebook.com: Vintage Los Angeles

##+Hagley Digital Archives

*#*KCET: A Historical Look at SoCal's Beaches; Arch Rock and Castle Rocks; When L.A.'s Most Famous Streets Were Dirt Roads

**#The Central Tower Building - City Landmark Assessment and Evaluation Report

#**MTA Transportation and Research Library Archives

#^^Huntington Digital Library Archive

#++Bel-Air Bay Club History

#*^Electric Railway History: Venice Trams

#^#Calisphere Digital Archive

#+#Facebook.com: Photos of Los Angeles

^^^California State Library Image Archive

^++Santa Monica Pier HIstory

****Life.time.com: Stoked-Life Goes Surfing

^^^^Pinterest/Santa Monica Past: Santa Monica Canyon Flood; Santa Monica Airport/Clover Field; Douglas Aircraft

^*^*UCLA Digital Collection

*^*^Santa Monica Beach Stories

^**^California Legends: Santa Monica at the End of Route 66

*^^*Discoverlosangeles.com: Santa Monica

*^^^NonPhotography.com-Nika: Santa Monica Pier

***^History of the Fairmont Miramar Hotel and Bungalows

^***Southern California Beaches: Santa Monica Beach

**#*Santa Monica via Beverly Hills Line - uncanny.net

*#**Los Angeles Westerners Corral: Venice Miniature Railway

*##*AkamaIdivers.com: Pacific Ocean Pier

*##^Santa Monica Conservancy; Henshey’s Tegner Building

*#*#Los Angeles Then and Now: Douglas' Dream Took Wing in Santa Monica

*#^#Flickr.com: Walking Over Santa Monica

^#*#Venice History: Roller Coasters and Carousels

^^*#Oceanpark.wordpress.com: Ocean Park Time Line

*^*#Santa Monica Municipal Airport


*^^#LAistory: The Santa Monica Pier

#*^*Cardcow.com: Marion Davies' Mansion

#***California 2012 - Travel w/ Terry: Annenberg Beach House

#*#*Flickr.com: Michael Ryerson

#^#*Denver Public Library Image Archive

#^^^Survey LA: Brentwod-Pacific Palisades Community Plan Area

#^*^Santa Monica Landmark Properties

#*^^Pinterest.com: California

#*^#Google Street Views

#^^*Pinterest.com: Old Hollywood

#^#^Paslisades Park: smgov.net

##*^Facebook.com: Hollywood's Garden of Allah Novels, Martin Turnbull

##^^MartinTurnbull.com: Gables Beach Club

****^Facebook.com: West San Fernando Valley Then And Now



*#*#*Venice Miniature Railroad - Jeffrey Stanton

*^ Wikipedia: California State Route 1; History of Santa Monica; Alphonzo Bell; Venice; California Incline; Route 66; Third Street Pomenade; Santa Monica Pier; Casa del Mar Hotel; Pacific Palisades - Castellammare; Parkhurst Building; Venice Canal HIstoric District; Annenberg Community Beach House; Santa Monica High School; Jack Dempsey; Muscle Beach; Wilshire Boulevard


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